ISSN: 7027-2221

Volume 8, Issue 13

Volume 8, Issue 13, Autumn 2017, Page 0-347


Anti-angiogenic Activity of Cuminum cyminum seeds extract: in vivo study

Ahmed M Mahmood; Hayder B Sahib

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 1-9

The objective of this study is to identify the possible anti – angiogenic activity of Cuminum cyminum seeds extract in vivo assays. Cuminum cyminum seeds powder was extracted by methanol using the cold method "maceration" as extraction process. The in vivo study was done by Chick Chlrioallontoic Membrane assay (CAM assay).Then phytochemical analysis done by Gas Chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC). The obtained data revealed that methanolic extract of Cuminum cyminum seeds significantly inhibit blood vessels growth when it compared to negative control and the inhibition zone about (++). And according to GC mass the extract showed chemicals related poly phenol group like tannins and flavonoids that may be responsible on anti angiogenic activity of Cuminum cyminum seeds.

The antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of Apium Graveolens (celery) in Streptozocin/ high fat diet induced hyperglycemic mice.

Alaa H. Abbas; Abdulkareem H. Abd; Shihab AbdulRhman; Ibrahim S. Abbas

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 10-28

In spite of the drugs available for the treatment of diabetes and high blood lipids but still accompanied by undesirable side effects, and so a wide attention and tendency for herbal and poly herbal treatment because of the lack of side effects, and low cost and accessibility.
Celery seeds, also known scientifically as Apium graveolens belong to the plant family Apiaceae . Analysis of the active ingredients of the ethanol extract of celery seeds proved the presence of different compounds, including terpenes and fatty acids, but fatty acids were the largest proportion of the rest of the substances that were examined through GC-MS.
The aim of the current study is to verify the effectiveness of ethanolic extract of A. graveolens in reducing hyperglycemia and high lipids in hyperglycemic mice .
Fourty male mice were used in the current study and mice were divided into 4 equel groups. . Group-1 (control) received distilled water (50µl ) orally and standard diet. Group-2 (drug control) orally and injected with STZ (150 mg/Kg) intraperitonially and received distilled water (50µl per day) orally with HFD . Group-3 injected with STZ and received glyburide (p.o) 0.5 mg/kg per day as standard drug with HFD for 28 days . Group-4 injected with STZ and received ethanolic extract of celery seed (400 mg/kg) per day by gastric lavage as well as HFD.
After the treatment was completed, blood samples were collected for analysis and isolation of liver and pancreas tissue for the histological examination.
The ethanolic extract of A. graveolens showed a significant decreasing in the level of blood glucose, lipid profile , serum (C-peptide) , improved (GSH), and reduction in level of MDA when compared with untreated group. The presence of variety of active consistuents in A. graveolens like flavonoids , turbines and unsaturated fatty acids may be the reason for the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects.

Comparison Between Two Extraction Methods on Total Extract with Primary Investigation of Phytochemical Compounds of Some Medicinal Plants used in Treatment of Urinary Tract Disease.

Abbas Moussa Kashmar; Estabraq H. Naser

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 29-36

Phytochemical investigation and urinary tract infection (UTI) treatment of parsley seeds, fennel seeds, and corn silk were studied. The aim of this study was conducted to investigation the best method of extraction on total extract, with preliminary screening of phytochemical compounds of parsley seeds (Petroselinum sativum), fennel seeds ( Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and corn silk ( Zea mays L.) to treat urinary tract diseases. The parts of each plant were extracted by two different methods, hot method by using distilled water and cold method was done by maceration with 90% ethanol at room temperature. In both methods the extract was dried under reduced pressure by rotary evaporator. Preliminary investigation of phytochemical compounds was done by using alkaline reagent test for flavonoids, foam test for saponins, terpenoids test for terpenoids, fehling’s reagent for reducing sugar and Dragendroff’s reagent for alkaloids. The qualitative identification was done by TLC. The results showed that the percentage yields of crud extracts by boiling with distilled water were higher than that obtained from cold maceration with 90% ethanol. The percentage of phytochemical components, flavonoids, saponins, reducing sugar, terpenoids and alkaloids of water extracts were higher than that in ethanolic extracts.
The effect of extracts in the treatment of UTI displayed that the combination of three plants water extracts were stronger than ethanolic extract. Based on our knowledge this is the first study on the effect of extracts from P. sativum, F. vulgare, and Z. mays in the treatment of UTI.

Serum level of cytokine (interleukin-10 ( IL-10 )) and oxidative stress markers Malondiaaldehyde and super oxide dismutase(MDA and SOD) in Iraqi patients with thyroid cancer

Israa A.Abdul Kareem

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 37-48

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its incidence continues to rise yearly .Thyroid carcinoma, in most cases, presents clinically as a solitary nodule or as a dominant nodule within a multinodular thyroid gland. it is very important to identify one or more markers to distinguish thyroid cancer from different types of thyroid disease., Oxidative stress is considered to be involved in the pathophysiology of all cancers.Interleukin-10 is a pleiotropic cytokine with both anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties that may be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid cancer cells of all histological variants produce considerable amounts of IL-10, which might be important in the pathological features of thyroid cancer and/or outcome. Our study aimed to evaluate IL-10 and oxidative stress markers, Malondiaaldehyde and super oxide dismutase (MDA&SOD) levels in sera of patients with CA thyroid and their close relatives compared to healthy control.and to study the correlation of these markers before and after the thyroidectomy operation compared with 1st to 2nd relatives and healthy controls. This 89study includes Thirty (30) subjects as the study sample is made of: 1) 15 diagnosed cases of CA thyroid before surgery and post-surgical treatment, 2) 15 cases of their 1st, or 2nd degree relatives; and 30 healthy subjects (control) would be recruited from surgical clinic in Al-Imamain Al- kadhimain city hospital from October 2014 up to December of 2016.Serum IL-10 was estimated using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay ( ELISA ) technique. Serum MDA levels were assessed using thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method of Buege and Aust , while SOD was measured by Burtis and Ashwood, using modified photochemical Nitroblue Tetrazolium (NBT) method utilizing sodium cyanide as peroxidase inhibitor.Analysis of serum levels demonstrated significantly increased levels of IL-10 in cancer patients between pre-thyroidectomy and post-thyroidectomy(p<0.01) and significantly increased compared with control groups (p<0.001) , SOD activities of pre-thyroidectomy, post-thyroidectomy and control groups were not different (p>0.05).In post- thyroidectomy MDA levels decreased compared to prethyroidectomy levels( p<0.01).also thyroid cancer significantly decreased compared with control groups (p<0.001). Although post-thyroidectomy MDA levels significantly decreased, but still higher than the healthy control group.its concluded that cytokine profile (IL-10) is reflective of an inflammatory immune response. These cytokines may increase the pathogenicity of thyroid CA and may be useful as biomarkers or targets for therapy. SOD does not seem to change with thyroid cancer and thyroidectomy but MDA change.IL-10 & MDA may be a more useful for monitoring the clinical status of thyroid cancer patients.

l Comparative bioavailability (bioequivalence) of a newly developed formula of Clopidogrel against Actavis tablets in fasting healthy male adult Iraqi subjects

Mowafaq M. Ghareeb

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 49-58

Objective: The study was performed to compare the bioavailability (bioequivalence) of a newly developed generic formula of clopidogrel 75 mg tablet as a test product against Actavis tablet containing 75 mg clopidogrel as the reference formula.
Methods: The newly developed generic formula of clopidogrel tablet was prepared using co-processed excipients composed mainly of microcrystalline cellulose, superdisintegrant, glidant, and magnesium stearate. In vitro dissolution test was done first to compare the test to the reference formulas, followed by the in vivo study. Both drug products were administered to 40 Iraqi male healthy adult subjects under fasting state applying randomized, two periods, two sequences, two-way crossover design with one week washout period between dosing. Blood samples were obtained over 72 hours interval from each subject, and the concentrations of the inactive metabolite of clopidogrel (clopidogrel carboxylic acid) were determined in serum by LC-MS/MS method. From serum concentration versus time data of each subject, the pharmacokinetics parameters AUC0-t, AUC0-infinity, Cmax, Tmax, and T0.5 were calculated applying non-compartmental data analysis.
Results: The dissolution profile of the test product was found to be similar to the reference product with similarity factor (f2) equal to 79.4%. The geometric mean ratios of the primary pharmacokinetic parameters used for bioequivalence testing of the test/reference products were; 102.47% for AUC0-t, 102.68% for AUC0-infinity and 101.85% for Cmax. The 90% confidence intervals for AUC0-t, AUC0-infinity and Cmax were 93.46-109.18 %, 98.78-108.32% and 91.65-104.33%, respectively. Since the 90% confidence intervals for these parameters were within the 80–125% interval proposed by FDA, it was concluded that the newly developed clopidogrel 75 mg tablet was bioequivalent to the reference product produced by Actavis in term of both the rate and extent of absorption and bioavailability. Consequently, the newly developed clopidogrel 75 mg tablet is interchangeable with clopidogrel 75 mg tablet manufactured by Actavis and can be prescribed as an alternative in the Iraqi market.

Anti-inflammatory effect of turmeric plant ( Curcuma longa L. ) rhizomes and myrrh (Commiphora myrrha L.) gums and ginkgo Ginkgo biloba L. leaves ( tablets ) extracts

Ahmed Abies Motar; Rajaa Ali Hussein; Meison Abdulbary

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 59-69

Back ground: the plants importance resulting from their uses as a nutrition source and for their therapeutic effect. These plants include turmeric , myrrh and ginkgo.
Aim of study: this study was conducted to test the anti-inflammatory effectiveness of turmeric plant ( Curcuma longa L. ) rhizomes and myrrh (Commiphora myrrha L.) gums and ginkgo , Ginkgo biloba L. leaves ( tablets )extracts.
Method: plants under study were extracted by soxhlet using methanol as a solvent, and then was fractioned by water, chloroform, ethyl acetate and hexane. The extracts tested to determine the anti-inflammatory effect through testing their ability to maintain the stability of the membranes of red blood cells , prevent protein denaturation and heat induced hemolysis.
Results: the result showed the effectiveness of all the plants under study in resisting inflammation with compared to standard medicines (Aspirin 100μg / ml and Diclofenac sodium 100μg / ml).
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the presence of secondary metabolites as alkaloid, polyphenolic compounds and phenolic acid in the plants under study would be marked a good anti-inflammatory effect.

Effect of Hyper- and Hypothyroidism on many physiological parameters and the rate of some diseases

Luma Qasim Ali; Ali Ibrahim Alsamawi; Jamela Jouda

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 70-78

Thyroid diseases are the second most public endocrine system disorder which effect many systems of the body. This work aimed to study the effect of hyper- and hypothyroidism on the blood pressure (systolic and diastolic, hemoglobin level (Hb), fasting blood sugar level (FBS), and decayed, missing, and fulling teeth (dmf-t) and study the frequencies of anemia, hypertension and diabetes in these three groups. This study included forty patients, who were previously diagnosed with hyperthyroidism (20case) and hypothyroidism (20case) as well as 10 healthy as control (male and female) in age group of 30-65 years. There were significant differences in HB levels among the three groups were detected. The lowest was in hypothyroidism and the highest was in control. The frequency of anemia was significantly higher in the hyper- and hypothyroidism compared to control. The systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group. Conversely, significantly higher diastolic blood pressure in the hypothyroidism group was detected. The frequencies of Hypertension were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism compared to control. There also were significantly differences in the FBS levels among the three groups. The frequency of diabetic was significantly higher in the hyper- and hypothyroidism compared to control. According to obtained data we suggested that all patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism should be periodically evaluated for probably hematological, cardiovascular, biochemical, and oral changes.

The employment of MALDI-ToF in the chemical analysis of fingermarks.

Zaid Al-Obaidi; Simona Francese

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 79-105

Background and objectives: Many endogenous and exogenous molecules with different chemical nature including lipids, vitamins, amino acids polymers and other small molecules have been detected by Matrix¬assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Many studies were done to detect proteins in body fluids; however, few focused on detecting proteins in sweat. Recently peptides and small proteins in finger marks were detected in laboratory experiments including dermcidin and dermcidin-derived peptides. The aim of this study is to confirm the identity of dermcidin and other peptide species that can be found within fingermarks.
Methodology: This study was performed with the employment of MALDI following two constitutive enzymatic digestions by trypsin and carboxypeptidase respectively. Bioinformatics tools were employed to identify and verify peptide maps. This work is important to both forensic and biomedical science fields. These sciences are interested in dermcidin and dermcidin-derived peptides. Also this study established the protocols with a high potential for many other detectable peptides.
Results: In this work, the detection and identification of dermcidin and dermcidin-derived molecules and possibly dual specificity phosphatase (DUSP27_ HUMAN, formerly known as DUPD1) has been achieved. This has been done by using enzymatic digestions while the expected fragments obtained with MALDI and confirmed by the employment of bioinformatics tools.
Discussion and Conclusions: The species of dermcidin and dermcidin tryptic digested peptides have been successfully identified directly in fingermark. Extra efforts are recommended to identify and confirm other peptides detected in fingermarks.

Correlation between Endogenous Vitamin D Status and Body Mass Index in Asthmatic Patients Receiving Adjuvant Vitamin D3 Supplement

RASHA SAADI ABBAS; MANAL KHALID ABDULRIDHA; MOSTAFA ABDALFATAH SHAFEK; HADEEL DELMAN NAJIM

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 106-121

Background: Most studies showed that the incidence of asthma is frequently associated with increased body mass index (BMI), vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as a risk factor that could explain a significant proportion of increased pattern of asthma prevalence. This study was aimed to track a correlation between body mass index and vitamin D status effect on asthma control in asthmatic patients.
Patients and Methods: This is a prospective randomized -controlled open-label interventional study to evaluate effect of vitamin D3 on asthma control and it's correlation with body mass index in asthmatic patients who are allocated into two main groups: Group 1: Include 20 patients who have diagnosed with asthma are assigned to receive conventional therapy for asthma according to disease stage and severity for three months period. Group 2: Include 24 patients who have diagnosed with asthma are assigned to receive conventional therapy for asthma according to disease stage and severity plus 2000 I.U vitamin D3 fast dissolve mini tablet (Natrol, USA) for three months period. Serum 25-OH vitamin D level, Body mass index (BMI), asthma control test (ACT) scoring system was measured both initially and after three months treatment.
Results: A highly significant improvement in asthma control found in patients after 3 months treatment with vitamin D3 supplement compared to pre treatment level (P<0.01), and was found significantly that among the 10 (42%) obese patients in group 2 with vitamin D deficiency, 6(25%) patients gained vitamin D insufficiency and 2(8%) patients gained vitamin D sufficiency after supplementation with vitamin D3 (P<0.01). After treatment body mass index inversely correlated with vitamin D level in patients receive conventional therapy, meanwhile in patients with vitamin D3 supplement the change in the body mass index after vitamin D3 treatment was parallel to the improvement in endogenous vitamin D level. Also the reduction in the body mass index after vitamin D3 treatment produce a positive correlation with asthma control test, though no significant (P>0.05). No direct correlation was found between endogenous vitamin D level and asthma control test in both study groups.
Conclusion: After vitamin D3 supplement in the current study, the change in the body mass index produce improvement in endogenous vitamin D status parallel to the change in the body mass index and markedly improvement in asthma control. Also the reduction in the body mass index after vitamin D3 treatment was positively correlated with asthma control.

The protective effect of Trigonella foenum- graecum L. seeds extract in high fat diet-streptozotocin induced hyperglycemic mice

Marwa A. Al-Dabbagh; Abdulkareem H. Abd; Noor M. Nasser; Ibrahim S.Abbas

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 122-136

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder which affects carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. associated with high morbidity and mortality. characterized by hyperglycemia together with biochemical alterations of glucose and lipid metabolism. Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia result in development of oxidative stress, systemic and local inflammation which were an critical factors for degradation of β-cells, insulin resistance and type II diabetes .Herbal medicine is one of the therapeutic strategies in the management of diabetes mellitus. It is considered to be less toxic and have fewer side effects than synthetic ones .The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of Trigonella foenum- graecum L. seeds(TFG) extract in High Fat Diet ∕ Streptozotocin -induced toxicity in mice. The seeds of TFG were defatted by soxhelt apparatus with n-hexane ,then marc was macerated with ethanol to obtain total ethanol extract. Thirty two male albino mice were fed high fat diet for two week plus single dose of streptozotocin 120mg ∕kg intraperitoneally to generate typeII diabetes model with increased adiposity. The protective and hypoglycemic activity of seeds extract against toxicity and hyperglycemia induced was evaluated in mice. Glimepiride was used as a standard treatment .FBG, serum C-peptide ,TC , Triglycerides ,HDL, LDL levels were measured at the end of 28th day of experiment then the animal sacrificed and liver and pancreas sections were prepared and stained for histological evaluation. This study was resulted in that (TFG) seed extract cause; FBG, serum lipid profile in hyperglycemic mice significantly decrease, It also increase serum C-peptide ,Glutathione and decrease Malondialdehyde levels significantly compared to untreated group; this was associated with improving histological features that impaired during STZ exposure. In conclusion, Defatted seeds extract has potential anti-hyperglycemic and hepatoprotective effect with free radical scavenging ability against STZ-induced toxicity.

The In Vitro Release Study Of Ceftazidime drug From Synthesized Strontium Flourapatite And Strontium Hydroxyapatite Coated Particles.

Erfan A. S. Alassadi; Zaki N. Kadhim; Mazin N. Mousa

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 137-151

Two compounds, strontium flourapatite (SrFA) and strontium hydroxyapatite (SrHA), were synthesized using wet chemical precipitation method. These compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The morphology and particle size for the resultant particles of the synthesized compounds were checked by scanning electron microscopy. The average particle size of strontium flourapatite was larger than that of strontium hydroxyapatite by 4.55 times. The particles of each compound were coated by trehalose sugar to decrease the possible ionic interactions with these synthesized compounds. An in vitro release study of ceftazidime antibiotic from the strontium flourapatite and strontium hydroxyapatite was performed in a simulated body fluid at a temperature of 37 oC. This release was studied by UV spectrophotometer at λmax of 258 nm for 12 hours. The results of the release study showed that the release of ceftazidime was faster from strontium flourapatite, but it was higher from strontium hydroxyapatite. The disparity in release rapidity and level was related to the considerable difference in the average particle size for the formed particles of the two synthesized compounds.

The indirect induction of human scabies to initiation autoimmune disease (SLE): Comprehensive study in marshes population of Thie-Qar

Alaa Abd-Alhasan Hamdan; Ali Jaleel Ali

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 152-166

Scabies is one of the disease that is considered an endemic and epidemic in Iraq, in this study it has been observed that other disease were found to be associated with scabies patients, and in order to investigate the mechanism by which the scabies may induce other disease (such as SLE) an immunological, hematological and immunobiochemical tests were investigated both in patients having scabies and scabies-SLE disease. High sensitive C-reactive protein was higher significant in all groups compared with control and higher significant in scabies-SLE as compare with scabies patients, IgG was higher significant in all groups as compare with control, lower significant in scabies-SLE as compare with scabies patients. IgM was higher significant in scabies patients as compare with control and lower significant in scabies-SLE. IgA was higher significant in all groups as compare with control. IgE was higher significant in all groups as compare with control, but lower significant in scabies-SLE as compare with scabies patients. C3 and C4 was lower significant in scabies-SLE as compare with both control and scabies patients. IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-18 and TNF-α was higher significant in all groups as compare with control also higher significant in scabies-SLE as compare with control. IL-1β was higher significant in all groups as compare with control, but not as compare scabies patients. IL-5 was higher significant in scabies as compare with control, but lower significant in scabies-SLE as compare with scabies. Eosinophil and neutrophil were higher significant in scabies as compare with control. Eosinophil, neutrophil, basophil and monocyte have lower significant in scabies-SLE as compare with control and scabies patients. superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher significant in scabies patient only as compare with control, but lower significant in in scabies-SLE as compare with both control and scabies patients. Malondialdehyde (MAD) level was higher significant in scabies-SLE as compare with control. All data were considered significant at (P<0.05). The mechanisms of inflammation induced by mites may be related to the generation of excessive level of cytokines and antibodies against its proteins, so that triggering of excessive inflammatory responses, then developing autoimmune disease likes SLE.

The effect of olive oil on ibuprofen induced Renal toxicity in female rats.

Mohammed Talat Abbas; Rabab Murtadha Abed; Nazar Jabar Metab

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 167-177

Ibuprofen is an effective, cheap, and it is one of the most commonly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which are among the most frequent prescribed medications worldwide .The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of olive oil against ibuprofen-induced nephrotoxicity female albino rats. In this study we used 24 female white rats and divided them into 4 equal groups. Each experimental group consisted of six animals. group1, control they were fed on diet and water without any treatment, group2, ibuprofen given at dose 40 mg/kg/day orally by gastric tube for 30 days, group3,olive oil 2 ml/kg/day (oral administration) , group4, ibuprofen at dose of 40 mg/kg/day and olive oil 2 ml/kg/day (oral administration).Treatments were administered once daily for 30 days. After 30 days, biochemical and histopathological analysis were conducted to evaluate nephrotoxicity. Serum levels of urea, creatinine, calcium, glucose, phosphorus and amylase were measured. Animals treated with ibuprofen alone showed a significant increase in serum levels of urea, creatinine and glucose and significant decrease in calcium. Treatment of rats with olive oil showed significant improvement in kidney function, presumably as a result of decreased boichemical parameters associated with ibuprofen-induced nephrotoxicity. Histopathological examination of the rats kidney confirmed these observations. Therefore olive oil may protect against ibuprofen-induced nephrotoxicity.

The effect of olive oil (Olea europaea) on ibuprofen induced hepatotoxicity in female rats

Mohammed Talat Abbass; Rabab Murtadha Abed; Nazar Jabar Metab

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 178-187

Ibuprofen, a propionic acid derivative, is one of the most commonly Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which are among the most frequently prescribed medications worldwide. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of olive oil against ibuprofen-induced hepatotoxicity in female albino rats. In this study we used 24 female white rats and divided them into 4 equal groups. Each experimental group consisted of 6 animals. Group1,control they were fed on diet and water without any treatment ,group2, ibuprofen given at dose 40 mg/kg/day orally by gastric tube for 30 days, group3,olive oil 2 ml/kg/day (oral administation), group 4, ibuprofen at dose of 40 mg/kg/day and olive oil 2 ml/kg/day (oral administration).Treatments were administered once daily for 30 days. After 30 days, biochemical and histopathological analysis were conducted to evaluate hepatotoxicity. Serum levels of albumin, total proteins, and activity of AST, ALP, ALT and total bilirubin were measured. Animals treated with ibuprofen alone showed a significant increase in serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP and significant decrease in albumin and total proteins. Treatment of rats with olive oil showed significant improvement in hepatic function , presumably as a result of decreased boichemical parameters associated with ibuprofen-induced hepatotoxicity. Histopathological examination of the rats liver confirmed these observations. Therefore olive oil may protect against ibuprofen-induced hepatotoxicity.

CHARACTERIZATION OF INVASIVE DUCTAL CARCINOMA (IDC) IN PRE-AND POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

KHALID MAHDI SALIH

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 188-196

Background: Previous findings reported that the majority of BC in Iraqi women is invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and the most frequent subtype is estrogen receptor (ER+) and/or progesterone receptor (PR+) expressed.
Objective: The present study is aimed to determine the association of age, BMI, and the levels of estradiol and progesterone hormones as well as their receptors in pre- and postmenopausal women with IDC that may ultimately help identify high-risk women who would benefit from increased screening or chemoprevention.
Methodology: Forty premenopausal and fifty eight (58) postmenopausal women with IDC, previously identified their ER and PR expression, are involved in this study. Age, BMI, and serum levels of estradiol and progesterone are determined.
Results: Both pre- and postmenopausal patients are presented at advanced age (45.8 ± 0.76, 59.1 ± 0.72 year) respectively. The average of BMI in both groups is within overweight category, but without significant difference between pre- and postmenopausal patients (27.3 ± 045, and 26.7±0.38 kg/m2 respectively). Both estradiol and progesterone serum levels are significantly higher in premenopausal patients (290.1± 6.5 pg/ml, and 2.55± 0.38 ng/ml respectively) than those in postmenopausal patients (264.1± pg/ml, and 0.75± ng/ml respectively). Just postmenopausal patients showed significant reverse association between E2 levels and the positively expression of ER (r= - 0.289), and PR (r= - 0.386), while progesterone levels showed significant association with age of pre- and postmenopausal, and with BMI of postmenopausal.
Conclusion: Collectively, age, estradiol level, and expression of ER and PR are the main factors associated with the diversity of breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women and ultimately they may help in identifying high-risk women who would benefit from increased screening or chemoprevention.

Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Study of Polycyclicacetal Derived From PVA and Its Complexes with (Cu+2, Ni+2, Zn+2 and Ag+1)

Maha A. Younus; Fadhel S.Matty; Sabreen A. Salah

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 197-209

Polymer metal complexes of poly vinyl alcohol acetal and Cu+2, Ni+2, Zn+2 and Ag+1 were synthesized from the reaction of PVA with 4-methoxybenzyldehyde. All compounds were characterized by FT-IR, UV-Visible, TGA, DTA, TG and Biological activity. The results showed that Polycyclicacetal behaved as bidentate through its oxygen atom of hydroxyl (O-H) groups of modified PVA. The tetrahedral geometrical was suggested for Cu+2, Zn+2 and Ag+1 complexes and octahedral geometrical Ni+2 complexes. The ligand and its metal complex showed good activity against different types of bacteria.

Preparation and In Vitro Evaluation of Orodispersible Tablets of Albendazole

Hasan; Z. A

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 209-220

Orodispersible tablet (ODT) is a solid dosage form containing a drug substance that disintegrates and/or dissolves rapidly in the mouth without water within a few seconds to few minutes. In current study, Albendazole was selected to be formulated as a ODT. Six formulas of albendazole with three different superdisintegrating agents were prepared. Banana powder, Na croscarmellose and Na crospovidone were the chosen superdisintegrating agents. Direct compression method was employed for its simplicity and cost effectiveness. The effectiveness of the prepared formulas was tested by in vitro evaluation study depending on their disintegration times and drug release. Unlike croscarmellose containing formulas (F1 and F2), banana containing formulas (F3, F4 and F5) exhibited an increase in their disintegration times when their amount was increased. Although F6, that had crospovidone as a superdisintegrating agent, demonstrated an acceptable disintegration and % drug release profiles, F3 was the best formula regarding the % drug release. Hence, poor disintegration profiles do not necessitate low dissolution values of a given formulation. The delayed disintegration times of banana containing formulas could be attributed to its tendency to work as a binder. The binding tendency could be enhanced by increasing the amount of banana powder in formulations that have poor water soluble drug like albendazole.

Histopathological changes of heavy metals Nickel Chloride (II) and Potassium dichromate (VI) on the Liver and Kidney of Swiss Male Mice

haider J. Kehiosh; Abeer C.Al-fatlawi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 221-230

Heavy metals are a very harmful environmental pollutant, Nickel and chrome induced toxicity and carcinogenicity, with an emphasis on the generation and role of reactive oxygen species is reviewed. Nickel and chrome are a known as haematotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, genotoxic, reproductive toxic, pulmonary toxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and carcinogenic agent. The present study revealed the toxic effects of nickel (Ni) (II) and chrome (Cr) (VI) on the liver and kidney structure of mature male mice weighing 20-30 g, (10-13 weeks old), were treated orally with different doses (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg of NiCl2 and 20, 60 and 100 mg/kg of K2Cr2O7). Dramatic Histopathological changes found in the liver and kidney of treated animals included degeneration, nuclear pycnosis, cellular swelling,necrosis, congestion of blood vessels and many others defects .

Synthesis, electropolymerization, and surface morphological properties of N-derivatized pyrroles with potential application in biosensing

Ahmed Al-Yasari; Hamieda Edan Salman; Zeyad Tareq Habeeb

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 231-238

We describe the synthesis of conjugated pyrrole-based monomers and their derived polymers on different conducting surfaces for biosensing applications, containing aryl-ketone 1-[4-(1H- pyrrol-1-yl)phenyl]ethan-1-one, (compound 1), and iodo 1-(4-iodophenyl)-1H- pyrrole (compound 2) functional groups, along with their electrochemical, morphological properties. Monomer 2 shows lack of electropolymerisation, while monomer 1 is electropolymerizable monomer. SEM-EDX, and Diffuse-reflectance FT-IR (DRFT-IR) were employed for surface characterisation of the deposited polymeric film on FTO glass.

Toxic Effects of Prolonged Ni (II) and Cr (VI) Exposure in Male Mice on Bone Marrow and Some Hematological Parameters

Abeer cheaid yousif AL-fatlawi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 239-248

Heavy metals hazard which can causes toxicological effects on many organs in animals and humans, therefore the purpose of the present study was to investigated the pathological lesion of Nickel (Ni II) and Chrome (Cr VI) metals on some hematological parameters in which heavy metal causes disorder in hematopoietic cell renewal system, which the results showed significant decrease (P≤0.01) in the red blood cells (RBC) count for all doses of Ni and Cr elements, significant decrease (P≤0.05) in the monocytes cell counts only at intermediate and high dose of Ni and Cr elements while significant increase (P≤0.01) of granulocytes cell counts only at high dose for both Ni and Cr elements. Although the results demonstrated there was no any significant difference on platelets for all doses of Ni. On other hand no any significant difference on platelets only at the lowest dose of Cr while, high significant differences (P≤0.01) on platelets at both intermediate and high dose of Cr. Also the results showed significant decrease (P≤0.05) in the bleeding time and clotting time for all groups treated with different doses of both Ni and Cr elements. Dramatic histological lesion for both elements found in the tissue of bone marrow such as degenerate, necrotic and loosely arranged of tissue.

Effect of transfusion interval rate on clinical manifestations of patients with beta- thalassemia major and their correlation with some biochemical parameters

Wafaa Fawzi. AL-Mosawy

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 249-257

Background: Regular blood transfusions is the commonest form of life-long treatment for patients with beta-thalassemia major but multiple transfusions of blood causes iron overload and resulting in multiple progressive organ damage that later involved endocrine system, heart, and liver.
Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical manifestations in the adult patients with beta thalassemia major based on interval rate of the blood transfusion and also investigate correlation between clinical status of patients with some biochemical parameters including the level of ferritin, Hb, prolactin, and cortisol.
Methodology: Forty one Iraqi β -thalassemia major (TM) patients (19male and 22 female) are recruited from thalassemia center in Karbala at age of 14-24 years. The frequency of blood transfusion rate, blood groups, spleen status, and HCV infection are recorded from the profile of all patients. The weight and height of patients were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI), while the concentration of Hb, ferritin, cortisol, and prolactin are tested at morning just before blood transfusion session. Patients are grouped according to their transfusion interval rate (TIR) into two groups; short TIR group (˂ 3 weeks), and long TIR group (≥ 3 weeks).
Results: The results were non-significant in the distribution of gender and blood groups, spleen status, frequency of HCV infection, Hb, cortisol, and prolactin between the two groups, but age average, ferritin level and BMI of long TIR group are significantly lower than those of short TIR patients. On the other hand, long TIR patients revealed non-significant correlation between all parameters and clinical manifestations except for Hb content which is significantly decreased (r = - 0.451, P = 0.039) in splenectomized patients. However, short TIR group showed that Hb content is significantly decreased in both splenectomized (r = - 0.560, P = 0.01) and underweighted (r = - 0.477, P = 0.033) TM patients.
Conclusion: We can concluded that the levels of cortisol and prolactin hormones are neither disturbed in TM patients nor correlated with interval rate of transfusion, but Hb level is the key factor that determine TIR and ferritin level leading to retardation in BMI which may be due to another endocrinopathy particularly those that are closely related with metabolic pathways such as growth hormone and thyroxin.

Use of intravenous paracetamol infusion versus placebo in acute brain injury

Samer Ahmed Jawad; Zahraa Abdul Kareem Mohammed; Maysaasalih Mahdi; Moayad mijbil Ubaid

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 258-266

Background:Traumatic brain injuries (TBI)are main causes of mortality and disability worldwide, particularly in children and young adults. They lead to changes in temperature,cerebral blood flow,the pressure inside the skull and consciousness.Patients with TBI experience febrile episodes which lead to previous consequences so it should be resolved prophylactically by use an appropriate antipyretic, but remains important deficiency of coherent evidence about active therapies in the acute care of patients with TBI.
Objectives:Early administration of intravenous paracetamol to patients to reduces core body temperature following intense traumatic brain injury contrast to placebo (normal saline).
Patients & Methods: Involved in this study 20 patients of both sex, aged from 18 to 65years, who were accepted to the intensive care unit for sharp brain injury. A prospective study was carried out in intensive care unit in AL Hussein medical city in Karbala during the period from first of November 2016 to the 28Th of February 2017. Eligible patients wererandomly selected & classified to two groups A & B which (10 patients each group). Group A received (0.9 %) of sodium chloride (normal saline) each(6 /24) hours and group B received 1gram of intravenous Paracetamol every (6 /24) hours. The result included Temperature, pulse rate and systolic & diastolic of blood pressure, which were measured prior to administration of the study drug, hourly during the period of study (24 hours) & till 2 hours after the final dose of the study. The data were analyzed by using T-test.
Results: By using T-test of two groups. Shows this study that there is little or no significant decrease in patient’s temperature in group B who were given paracetamol (P>0.05) except at (first dose) of paracetamol (P< 0.05), while there is no change in group A who were given normal saline (P>0.05).This study also shows significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure in group B at (first & second dose) of paracetamol (P<0.05), while there is no significant change in group A (P>0.05). When we monitored the pulse rate parameter & systolic blood pressure, we noticed that there is no significant change in its value in the two groups (P>0.05).
Conclusion:. Was concluded that there is little or no significant decrease in patient’s temperature in group B who were given paracetamol, while there is no change in group A who were given normal saline.

A comparative study to evaluate the analgesic effect and some vital signs effects of intravenous (Remifentanil - Morphine – Paracetamol)

Zahraa Abdul Kareem Mohammed

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 267-277

Background: Pain is problematic in intensive care units (ICU) patients because produces adverse psychological and physiological response that includes increased heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, neuroendocrine secretion and psychological distress. Opioid medications play role in pain control, but may cause a harmful effects on some vital signs. The primary goal of acute pain management are pain control and attenuation of the negative physiological and psychological consequences of unrelieved pain.
Objectives: To compares effect of Paracetamol, morphine & remifentanil and their activity as analgesic on some vital sings.
Patients & Methods: A prospective study was carried out in intensive care unit in AL Hussein medical city in Karbala during the period from first of November 2016 to the 28Th of February 2017. 30 patients of both sex were involved in this study, aged from 18 to 65 years old. Eligible patients were randomly selected & classified to three groups A, B & C (10 patients each). Group A received Morphine intravenous bolus doses (1 mg/30 min), group B received Remifentanil infusion dose (0.1 mcg/ kg/ min), and group C received Paracetamol infusion dose (1g /6 hourly). Data including pain score, pulse rate & blood pressure, were recorded pre-treatment & then same data were taken & reported at 2 hours interval for 12 hours. The data were statistically analyzed by using T-test.
Results: It was found that Paracetamol has no significant effect on systolic, diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate (136 ± 4.65, 75 ± 2.96 , 94 ±4.39 ) respectively as it's mean ±standard deviation values compared with pre-treatment values that represent control (138 ± 3.73, 80 ± 2.96, 99 ± 3.41), but with morphine group (124 ± 3.02, 67 ± 3.20, 89 ±5.87) & remifentanil group (111 ±5.64, 61 ± 1.33, 82 ±5.27) respectively, in which they have shown significant effect on these vital signs (systolic, diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate) compared with their pre-treatment values (138 ± 3.73, 80 ± 2.96, 99 ± 3.41). In addition, it was found that Paracetamol has less significant effect on pain score (face, legs, activity, cry, consolability) FLACC scale (4 ± 0.31) at (2,4,6,10,12) hours intervals compared with its pre-treatment value (5 ± 0.18) which means that paracetamol has lower analgesia than the two other drugs, morphine(2 ± 0.32) and remifentanil(2 ± 0.26) respectively,
that have significant effect on FLACC scale at (2,4,6,8,10,12) hours intervals, compared with their pre-treatment values.
Conclusion:. Paracetamol as analgesic has more vital signs stability compared with morphine & remifentanil but it has less analgesic effects compared with the other two drugs.

Effect of tamsulosin for reduction of lower urinary tract symptoms after double J stent insertion

Noor D. Aziz

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 278-287

Ureteral stent implantation is a common procedure in urological practice, due to the development in endourological procedures and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.Problems following stent insertion such as stent-related symptoms, migration, fragmentation and encrustation of the stent. The level of complications differs among patients, but mostly it will affect quality of life.α1-Adrenergic receptors have been expressed in the human ureter, and specially in the distal ureter. α1 blockers dilate the lumen and decrease spasms leading to improve stent-related symptoms .The present study was done to evaluate the effect of tamsulosin in improving lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with double-J ureteral stents implantation.This prospective study was performed in Iraq-Babylon in the period from July 2016 to December 2016. Fourty eight patients were enrolled in this study all patients completed the follow up period which was 2 weeks, range of age was (25-50) years . The patients were divided into 2 groups: Group 1: consists of (24) patients include (10) males (14) females were treated with double J stent insertion and analgesic on need without Tamsulosin. Group 2: consists of (24) patients include (13) males (11) female were treated with double J stent insertion and drug therapy (tamsulosin 0.4 mg) daily(by oral rout) for 2 weeks. The results show that there was a significant improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms after the treatment period in the second group of patients (p0.01).In conclusion the use of tamsulosin 0.4 mg daily for 14 days is a safe and well tolerated for stent-related symptoms improvement.

Assessment of Primary Prevention Measures for Cardiovascular Risk among a Sample of Iraqi Subjects: A preliminary retrospective study

Manal Khalid Abdulridha; Mohammed M. Mohammed; Hadeel Delman Najim

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 288-298

Background: Cardiovascular disease currently considered as a main health issue and the biggest cause of death world wild. This study was performed to evaluate the application of primary prevention criteria in practice on Iraqi subject to assess their cardiovascular risk.

Patients and Method: We retrospectively implement the Framingham risk score to estimate the 5-yearrisk probability for developing cardiovascular disease. All subjects have a sequential personal data for five years (from 2010 until 2014) including; Age, body mass index, lipid profile & blood pressure measurements were obtained either from patient’s medical documents, physical examinations, or communication with medical staff.

Results:The cardiovascular disease prediction scoresfor both women and men up ceiling over the five years. The average 5 years cardiovascular disease prediction scorewashigherfor men compared to that for women (15.52%) vs. (5.26%), respectively.




Conclusion:the study was concluded that Iraqi subjects may have intermediate or high cardiovascular risk for primary assessment that should be monitored and treated. Further assessment is critically warranted.

BUCCOADHESIVE TABLETS OF TRIFLOUPERAZINE: FORMULATION, EVALUATION AND EFFECT OF FORMULATION PARAMETERS

Maryam H. Alaayedi; Ebtihal A. Dakhil; Ashti M. H. Saeed

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 299-310

Buccal drug delivery has become one of the popular delivery systems due to its comparable and significant advantages over the conventional dosage form. Trifluoperazine is an antipsychotic which is a phenothiazine compound. It is mainly used for schizophrenia. This work presents different formulations of trifluoperazine HCl as a mucoadhesive tablet by using various polymers in order to avoid the effect of 1st pass metabolism; hence, improve the drug bioavailability as well as to obtain better patient compliance. The tablets compressed by direct compression and designed to provide the release of drug from one side and using ethyl cellulose (EC) to cover the other side. Various polymers were employed such as carbapol 934 (CP 934), chitosan, guar gum, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M (HPMC K4M) and others. The formulations (F1-F12) were undergoing different evaluations as ex vivo and in vitro methods and statically analyzed the bioadhesion, swelling index and in-vitro release of drug. The results showed that F6 which included SCMC in addition to CP 934 was giving the optimum release of 91.95%, swelling index of 87 after 6 hours and mucoadhesive strength equal to 20.12 g.

Effect of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) on Amoxicillin Floating Tablet

Rahma Hussein Salim; Ayat Karim Hassan; Noor Qasim Al-tamemi; Ashti M. Saeed; Hasanain Sh. Mahmood; Zaid AL-Obaidi; Jinan M. Almusawi; Maryam H. Alaayedi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 311-319

Amoxicillin is a broad spectrum antibiotic which has been used for treatment range of infections including Helicobacter pylori. Formulating a locally release drug delivery is preferred for better amoxicillin action. Floating dosage form is a candidate for carrying the drug which reserve drug in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) was studied in this research to determine its effect on floating characteristics of amoxicillin tablet. Seven formulas of amoxicillin floating tablet were prepared by direct compression method. The results showed that using about 11% of the polymer gave better floating lag time (about 3 minutes) and floating duration (more than 5 hours) to be optimized formula in comparing with others.

Preparation and Evaluation of Dapsone Nanoparticles

Ahmed Najim Abood; Yasamin Abdulhadi Sallal

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 320-335

Objective: Preparation of Dapsone nanoparticles to get optimized solubility, rate of dissolution and then more bioavailability.
Methods: Dapsone nanoparticles were prepared using solvent-antisolvent precipitation method. A Certain amount of drug was dissolved in water-miscible solvent (ethanol or methanol), then this solution was injected at certain speed (ml/min.) into water containing stabilizer. Upon injection, precipitation of Dapsone nanoparticles will occur immediately accompanied with stirring for 30 min. at 50˚C, and then the selective formula is lyophilized. Different formulas of Dapsone nanoparticles were prepared at different polymer types, drug: polymer ratios and different organic solvent types. Characterization of these formulas involve measurement of particle size, particle morphology, saturation solubility, release profile, crystallinity, physical and chemical compatibilities between the drug and involved stabilizers.
Results: Results show that the best formula of nanoparticle (F3) prepared by dissolving 16.6 mg/ml of Dapsone in ethanol, then 3ml was injected into to a 25 ml of water with PVP (polyvinyl pyrrolidone) as a stabilizer at ratio 1:4 (drug: stabilizer) then lyophilized to obtain nanoparticles. The best formula characterized by particle size around 28.5 nm, poly-dispersity (= 0.009), specific surface area (= 78.18), without physical or chemical incompatibility, and the dissolution rate was significantly higher than that of the raw Dapsone powder.

Solubility enhancement of ibuprofen in oral liquid preparations using basic amino acids as counter ions

Hamid S. Alghurabi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 337-347

Background: The recent advance in combinatorial chemistry to find new drug candidates has increased the number of compounds having low solubility profile, which makes them more difficult and less desirable for further dosage form development. Salt formation is one of the most common and preferred method for increasing the aqueous solubility of poor soluble drugs. Basic amino acids are considered fairly strong bases with the advantages of self-buffering in the formulation as well as producing salts that have pleasant tastes and less likely to be affected by the common-ion effect.
Objective: The main aim of the project will focus on the development of a universal solubilising vehicle for the formulation of insoluble acidic drug candidates as liquid preparations through salt formation by using acidic amino acids as counter ions.
Materials and Methods: Ibuprofen was chosen as a drug candidate and reacted with two different basic amino acids (lysine and arginine). Phase solubility diagram was obtained by measuring the solubility of ibuprofen free acid with different concentrations of basic amino acid (lysine and arginine) by UV spectrophotometer. The amino acid solutions pH was measured using pH meter. The stability of the prepared salts in in the presence of other solvents such as ethanol and glycerin and other salts such as potassium chloride was monitored by measuring the solubility of the drug over time.
Results: Increasing the concentrations of both arginine and lysine resulted in increasing pH of the solution and consecutively improving the solubility of ibuprofen by 1371 and 242 fold, respectively. The prepared salts showed high stablity in the presence of ethanol, glycerin and potassium chloride over a period of 6 months.
Conclusion: salt formation is very effective method in solubility enhancement provided that the appropriate counter-ion with the correct concentration and pH condition is used.