ISSN: 7027-2221

Issue 12,

Issue 12


Spectrophotometric determination of drug compounds in pure forms and in the pharmaceutical preparations

Qabas Naji Rashid

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 12, Pages 1-14

A sensitive, rapid and economical spectrophotometric processes for estimation
of two drugs; methyldopa (MTD) and Fluvastatin Sodium (FLV), by “Sodium 1,2-
naphthoquine- 4-sulfonate (NQS)” as reagent in an alkaline interemediate. These
methods are digested on the forming of “complexes” among these drugs and the
chromogenic reagent (NQS). Orangish-brown colored complex formatted at (pH
12) and λmax. 462 nm for (MTD), and orange colored at (pH 11.7) and λmax. 466 nm
for (FLV). Beer’s Law is obeyed in a concentrations range of (4-40 μg/mL), (16-
64 μg/mL), with molar absorptivity (14.101×104 L/mol.cm), (22.7×104 L/mol.cm),
and correlation coefficient 0.9995, 0.9987, successively, The detection limit and
quantification limit were (1.03×10-1 μg/mL, 3.12×10-1 μg/mL ), and (1.36×10-1
μg/mL, 4.12×10-1 μg/mL ), successively. The suggested methods were prosperity
implement to the estimation of “these drugs” in pure forms and in their
pharmaceutical formulations.

RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Diclofenac sodium ,Chlorphenaramine malate and Paracetamol in Tablets

Abdulbari M. Mahood

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 12, Pages 15-28

A simple, selective, accurate reverse phase high Performance Liquid Chromatographic (Rp-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the analysis of. Diclofenac sodium ,Chlorphenaramine malate and Paracetamol in tablets .Chromatographic separation achieved isocratically on a C18 column [Use Inertsil C18, 5m , 25 mm x 4.6 mm] utilizing a mobile phase of acetonitrile/phosphate buffer (55:45, v/v, pH 6.0) at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min with UV detection at 262 nm. The retention time of Diclofenac sodium, Chlorpheniramine maleate and Paracetamol were 2.115, 2.567 and 3.021 min respectively. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity for three drugs was found in the range of 2-60 µg/ml , 2-40 µg/ml and 2-40 µg/ml for Diclofenac sodium , Chlorphenaramine malate and Paracetamol respectively. The limit of detection for Diclofenac sodium , Chlorphenaramine malate and Paracetamol was found to be 0.8957 µg/mL , 0.935 µg/mL and 0.4033 µg/mL respectively whereas, the limit of quantification was found to be 2.7229 µg /mL, 2.8335 µg /mL and 1.2220 µg /mL respectively. The average recovery was found to be 99.482%, 100.932% and 98.303% for Diclofenac sodium , Chlorphenaramine malate and Paracetamol respectively.
The proposed method was found to be accurate, precise and rapid for the simultaneous determination of Diclofenac sodium , Chlorphenaramine malate and Paracetamol.

Association Between Total antioxidant Capacity and Leptin Levels in Type-2 Diabetic Patients

Dr.Riyadh Al-Zubaidi; Dr.MohammedT.Abbas

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 12, Pages 29-33

Diabetes is a long life condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body doesn't produce enough insulin to function properly, or the body’s cells don't react to insulin. This means that glucose stays in the blood and isn't used as fuel for energy. The present study was conducted to investigate the serum total antioxidant capacity ,serum leptin ,blood glucose and lipid profile and its association with the type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study was case control conducted 55 male with Type II diabetes and 17 male volunteers were healthy control group, blood samples collected after 14 h fasting Parameters was measured with special enzymatic kits. The present study show significant decline of serum total antioxidant capacity among diabetic cases compared with control group (p< 0.001), serum lepton was and blood glucose significantly high in type 2 diabetes patients group compared with control group (P < 0.001) . Serum cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride were high but no significant in type 2diabetes patients group than normal control group (P < 0.001),while serum HDL-C level was lower non-significant in type 2diabetes patients than control group. We concluded the wasSignificant decline in serum total antioxidant and significant elevations in serum leptin intype2 diabetes in comparison with normal subjects.

EFFECT OF ALLIUM SATIVUM ON THE GROWTH OF SOME SPECIES OF FUNGI.

Alaa abdul Razzaq Mohammed

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 12, Pages 34-41

This study included studying some properties of the Extract Concentrated Fresh of Garlic (ECFA), (AlliumSativum), and evaluated the activity of (ECFA) on the inhibition of the growth of some fungi species: ( Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Exophiala dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans and different Species of Aspergillus) .
Also some physical condition which enhances the activity of (ECFA)as antifungal ,were studied like (dilution, incubation temperature, protein Concentration, half-life and its treatment with activated charcoal ).
The result shows that the (ECFA) has inhibition action on growth of fungi species which included in this study.

Synthesis of some saccharin derivatives containing 1,2,3-triazoline ring

Mustafa K. Shneshil

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 12, Pages 42-48

Some of 1,2,3-triazoline containing compounds were prepared starting from sodium saccharin. The later was reacted with allyl chloride forming allyl saccharin, then reacted with n-heptyl azide to give compound (1) named as (N-((1-n-heptyl-1,2,3-triazolin-4-yl)methyl) saccharin. Compound (1) was hydrolyzed under strong basic conditions to form the carboxylic acid derivative (2). Compound (2) reacted with ethanol to produce the ester derivative (3), the ester derivative (3) reacted with hydrazine to form the hydrazide derivative (4). Compound (4) was reacted with propargyl chloride to form (5). Compound (5) finally reacted again with n-heptyl azide to form (6). The compounds were identified using the analytical and spectral methods shown in the work. The compounds were tested for their biological and antioxidant activity; some compounds were active and other was not.

Studying of the physical and chemical characteristics for two formulations of Co-Trimoxazole and Trimethoprim oily injections

Hasan Ahmed Hasan

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 12, Pages 49-57

Over the past century there has been a dramatic increase in the utilization of the combination of Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and Trimethoprim (TMP) solution as IV injection (Cotrimoxazole injection) as antibacterial agent in human and Trimethoprim Oily injection (IM) for sheep, goats . The aim of this study was to determine some physical and chemical properties for the above two formulations (appearance, pH, contents, sterility) as well as histopathological studying for trimethoprim oily injection in sheep,where both two formulations have pH = 9.8 , and the content of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was 95.7% , 94.3% respectively for cotrimoxazole , while trimethoprim content in trimethoprim oily injection is 101% according to B.P. .

Preparation of activated charcoal from the initial plant sources and use it to remove the poisoning cases Drug amoxicillin

Attallah B. Dekhyl; Hassan F. Mohamed; Leqaa H. Alwan

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 12, Pages 58-68

In this study, the preparation of activated carbon from plant primary sources, and use it as a new adsorbent for adsorption drug (Amoxicillin). As the results show that charcoal record high efficient adsorption of the drug under study and used ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry technique to learn quantity adsorbed. The results showed that the adsorption of the drug amoxicillin process reaches equilibrium with a time of 45 minutes at the concentrations of low-lying, since the study was conducted at different temperatures،50،40،30،25،20،10)60,and70) C° which has been Account thermodynamically functions (ΔH°,ΔG°,ΔS°) at equilibrium, and found that the amount of adsorption decreased with increasing temperature and this shows that the endothermic interaction driven by entropy effect and that the process of adsorption is the process of spontaneous processes. In addition to increasing it increases the efficiency of adsorption at an acid function and acidity natural of the drug under study. The results show that the adsorption on the surface of charcoal record follows Frendlich Equation and Langmuire Equation in adsorption and desorption by a factor of good link .

Comparative study between the effect of first and second generation of anti-epileptic drugs on hepatorenal toxicity in female albino rats

shatha Hussein kadhim; muntadher mohammed gani; moayad mijbil ubaid; nazar jabar metieb

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 12, Pages 69-83

Sodium valproate (first generation) and oxcarbazepine (second generation) are common antiepileptic drugs used today. The study was conducted to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two drugs on both renal and hepatic functions test. The experiment was done on 18 female albino rats in Kerbala University /animal house of Pharmacy College and lasted for about two months,and the research was done with the agreement of the animal rights in the college. The rats were divided into three groups, the first group represented healthy animals, second group was drenched orally with 500mg/kg/day of sodium valproate and the third one was drenched orally with100mg/kg/ day of oxcarbazepine. Blood was collected for lab analysis and the hepatic /renal tissues were excised for histological examination. The results showed a significant elevation in liver (AST and ALT) ,as well as parameters such as (urea and creatinine) in both second and third group in comparing with healthy group. histological examination of liver and kidney in animals drenched with valproate showed significant hepatocyte and tubular necrosis while in rats intoxicated with oxcarbazepine showed single hepatocyte necrosis and mild tubular necrosis. In this study, sodium valproate was suggested to have more hepatorenal toxicity than oxcarbazepine and this result was confirmed by both blood tests and histopathological examination.

Synthesis and characterization of new ligand of Dithiocarbamate derived from "2-Aminopyridine" with some metal ions

Safaa A.R. Ahmed

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 12, Pages 84-98

This study included synthesis and characterization of new ligand of Dithiocarbamate, this ligand is:
KL = Potassium 2-Aminopyridine Dithiocarbamate
The preparation process included two interactive steps as follows :
step1: involved the preparation of amines from the reaction of the primary amyloid compound (2-aminoperidine) with benzoyl chloride. The second step was to prepare the lycand from the reaction of the first step product with carbon disulfide with potassium hydroxide as a basic medium.

Step 2 : ligand reaction with metal ions (CoII, NiII, CuII, CdII, HgII) For the preparation of ligand - derived complexes, the prepared complexes were characterized by infrared spectra, UV-Vis spectra , mass spectra,1H,13C- NMR spectra and molar conductivity And magnetic susceptibility. The propose geometrical shapes of the (CoII, NiII, CuII) complexes were octahedral , while the geometrical shape of the complexes (CdII, HgII) was a tetrahedral.

Toxic Effects of Prolonged Ni (II) and Cr (VI) Exposure in Male Mice on Bone Marrow and Some Hematological Parameters

Abeer cheaid yousif AL-fatlawi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 12, Pages 99-108

Heavy metals hazard which can causes toxicological effects on many organs in animals and humans, therefore the purpose of the present study was to investigated the pathological lesion of Nickel (Ni II) and Chrome (Cr VI) metals on some hematological parameters in which heavy metal causes disorder in hematopoietic cell renewal system, which the results showed significant decrease (P≤0.01) in the red blood cells (RBC) count for all doses of Ni and Cr elements, significant decrease (P≤0.05) in the monocytes cell counts only at intermediate and high dose of Ni and Cr elements while significant increase (P≤0.01) of granulocytes cell counts only at high dose for both Ni and Cr elements. Although the results demonstrated there was no any significant difference on platelets for all doses of Ni. On other hand no any significant difference on platelets only at the lowest dose of Cr while, high significant differences (P≤0.01) on platelets at both intermediate and high dose of Cr. Also the results showed significant decrease (P≤0.05) in the bleeding time and clotting time for all groups treated with different doses of both Ni and Cr elements. Dramatic histological lesion for both elements found in the tissue of bone marrow such as degenerate, necrotic and loosely arranged of tissue.

The analgesic effect of Local Passiflora, Cinnamon and Chamomile plant ethanol extract in Swiss albino mice

Ahmed Haqi Ismael; Rasheed Muhsin; Haifa; Kassim M. Sowdani

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 12, Pages 109-119

The study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of the ethanol extracts of Passiflora, Cinnamon and chamomile in Swiss albino mice. Forty Swiss albino mice, and were divided into 5 groups (8 animals per each group). Analgesic activity of the plants was evaluated by using acetic acid induced writhing test, hot plate test and heat conduction test in albino mice. The study revealed that the dose (33 mg/kg) of Passiflora ethanolic extract produced (12 ±1.309) in heat conduction test (9.1250 ±1.246 sec.) in hot plate test and (7.875±1.246 stretch in 15 min.) in writhing test. The dose (8 g/kg) of cinnamon oil produced (10.875±1.246 sec.) in heat conduction test (10.25 ±1.035 sec) using hot plate test and (7±1.069 stretch in 15 min) in writhing test. The dose (13 g/kg) of chamomile oil produced (12±1.069 sec.) in heat conduction test (12.5±1.603) in hot plate test and (6.125±1.246 stretch in 15 min) in writhing test. All three plants showed analgesic effect. The strongest effect was shown by chamomile then cinnamon and last comes passiflora showing the weakest analgesic among them.

The level of 17-beta estradiol in follicular fluid for patients undergoes IVF as correlation with the pregnancy rate

Salam S. Ahmed; Mutaz S. Ahmeid; Muhana O. Hussein

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 12, Pages 120-130

Estradiol (E2) is a steroid hormone produced mainly by the ovary and placenta and in small amounts by adrenals and testes. Estradiol is in equilibrium with estrone, which can be converted to estriol by the liver and placenta. Like for LH-FSH-progesterone, measurement of estradiol concentration is an essential biochemical tool for the investigation of fertility. So that this study was done to assess the follicular fluid E2 in early follicular phase as a predictor of pregnancy rate among females undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Iraqi patient. The study population consisted of women undergoing in vitro fertilization and aged between 18 - 45 years. The medical records of 56 infertile patients undergoing IVF in the program at center of Baghdad center in the period between February 2015 and July 2015.
This study resulted in a pregnant women were 11 (20%) while the non-pregnant women were 45 (80%). The mean levels of E2 fluctuated among different age groups showing significantly with age >35 as compared with another group. The mean levels of E2 in follicular fluid fluctuated among different BMI groups showing that mid 30 year women had more chance to have pregnancy through IVF, and there's no significant between pregnant and non-pregnant. When related to BMI, IVF result showed that the chance of IVF success increased with decreased BMI. This implies that slim women had more chance to have pregnancy through IVF. Furthermore, level of E2 in follicular fluid couldn't be used in IVF as a predictor success of pregnancy.

Study the effect of physical exercises to decrease the dangerous of smoking By estimated some serological biomarkers

Alaa Abd-Alhasan Hamdan

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 12, Pages 131-142

the smoke of cigarette consists of many harmful chemicals materials , such as , carcinogenic and free radicals, thus it cause damage for many organs of the body, also it affect on the lipid concentration of plasma. In this study we estimated the effect of exercises to decrease the dangerous of smoking by determination the level of lipid profile, TAC , Hs-CRP, MDA, AST and ALTtotal protein, in two groups of smokers one with exercise and the other is not, this study estimated the effect of sport in decrease the dangerous of smoking. Results showed that the level of lipid profile (total cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C) have significant differences in all groups of smokers as comparison with control. There is a parallel increased in the level of plasma lipid as increase in number of cigarette per day. except leveles of HDL-C which increased with decrease of duration and intensity of smoking. The liver function test ALT, AST ALP, STB were significant deference at (P value≤0.05) when compare both groups A1 and A2 with control. Total protein, albumin, globulin, have significant deference when compare both groups A1, B1 and A2, B2 with control. TAC, Hs-CRP, MDA have significant deference when compare both groups A1, B1 and A2 with control.