ISSN: 7027-2221

Issue 11,

Issue 11

The use of three to five Tablespoonful per day of garlic ,olive and sesame oil mixture can improve health of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis disease

Ali jalil Ali

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 1-14

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease where the body immune system
attacks different normal joint tissues organs causing inflammation of the joint lining . Rheumatoid
arthritis still one of an important diseases affecting large population. Different kinds of medicine
where used but still the needs for extra herbal medicine that assist and improve patients movements
is needed for decreasing patients compliance. This study summarized the benefit of using Garlic,
Olive and Sesame oil (GOS) mixture on patients health though its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial
effects and this effect was seen after using mostly three to five tablespoonful/day. Such
results was confirmed by decreasing most of inflammatory markers (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
(ESR), Rheumatoid factor (RF), Neutrophile count, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (Anti-
CCP) level and bacterial growth) with improving patients health. Aim of the study: to study the
efficiency of garlic oil, olive oil and sesame oil mixture in treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis
disease. Methods: A 80 serum samples (27 women and 43 men; mean age 45.5 ± 13.8 years; range, 25-
74 years) of patients with sign and symptoms of Rheumatoid arthritis attending Karbala Teaching
Hospital for Rheumatology department were studied. The patients were divided into three groups
:1- Twenty- five rheumatic patients were advised to administer five tablespoonful / day from
mixture containing GOS oil . 2- Thirty-five rheumatic patients were advised to administer three
table spoonful/ day of mixture containing GOS oil.3- Twenty patients were advised to administer
one tablespoonful/ day of mixture containing GOS oil. All the groups were advised to use topical
ointments containing mixture of GOS oil for 30 days. Inflammatory blood marker like Erythrocyte
sedimentation rate (ESR) , Rheumatoid factor (RF), Neutrophile count and Anti-CCP level in
addition to bacterial growth was evaluated before and after administration of GOS oral and topical
Results: The results demonstrated that the level of ESR was decreased upon oral (three and five
tablespoonful/day) and topical use of GOS mixture. While RF level decreased if the patients use
five tablespoonful/day compared to three tablespoonful/day which show slight decrease in RF
level. However, Neutrophiles count was also found to be reduced during administration of three
tablespoonful/day while dosing of five and one tablespoonful/day shows a similar level of
Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody regarded one of specific test for diagnosis of RA
disease. Five tablespoonful/day the patients describe a slight decline in the curve compared
with (three tablespoonful/day) that will have a sharp decrease in Anti-CCP level with
subsequent improvement in patients health . However, one tablespoonful/day , have relatively a
similar effect on Anti-CCP level to that of five tablespoonful/day). Bacterial growth profile was
found in all patients to be reduced sharply upon using GOS mixture. This decrease mostly
associated with the use of (three tablespoonful/day, five tablespoonful/day and one
tablespoonful/day) respectively.
Conclusion: Administration of oral (three to five tablespoonful/day) of GOS mixture was found to
reduce sign and symptom of RA disease with subsequent improvement in patients health. Such
results was accompanied by decreased in RA blood marker (ESR, RF, Neutrophiles count and Anti-
CCP ) level. In addition, to the reduction in bacterial growth. However, a further study is required
to investigate the effect of GOS mixture in compared to other anti-rheumatic drugs effects.

Anew spectrophotometric method for determination of Famotidine drug

Abdulbari Alhelfi; Rajwan Abd Aljabar

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 15-25

Anew and simple sensitive reproducible spectrophotometric method was used for
determination of famotidine drug(FA) in bulk sample and pharmaceutical formulation
. The determination depend on formed the prussian blue by reacting the drug with
iron(III) chloride to form iron(II) which reacts with potassium hexacyanoferrate(III).
The product measurable spectrophotometrically at 744 nm. Regression analysis of
Beers plot good correlation in the concentration range (1.00-6.00) μ
No interference was observed from the usually existing additive in the
pharmaceutical formulation and the applicability of the method was examined by
analyzing tablets containing (FA).
The correlation coefficient of 0.9982, a relative standard deviation (RSD%)of
(2.07%) and the detection limit was (3.50×10-5) μ the sandell sensitivity was
(1.70×10⁻⁴ μ Recoveries were (98.25-100.5 )% .

Formulation &invitro evaluation of clarithromycin floating microsponge capsule

Jenan m. Mohsin al mosawi; Alaa Abdul- Razzaq; Hasanain Shakir Mahmood

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 27-35

Objective: The aim of this study is to formulate microsponge of clarithromycin capsule
dosage form and evaluate the release profile in comparing with marketed clarithromycin
Methods: clarithromycin microsponge was prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion
method by using polymers Eudragite RL100 in organic solution as internal phase and
aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol as external phase. The compatibility of the drug
with formulated components was established by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR)
spectroscopy. The prepared microsponge powder was evaluated for angle of repose,
Carr's Index ,particle size, floating time production yield, drug loading efficiency of
microsponges and release profile in comparison with marketed drug.
Results: Formulation F4 with a ratio 8:1 drug to polymer, and 0.25% polyvinyl
pyrrolodine solution was the best formulation showing the highest degree of sustained
release that was 79.59% at the end of 12 hours with a floating time capsule 12 hr.
Eudragit RL 100 could control drug release in stomach.

Hepatoprotective activity of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) against Paracetamol toxicity in female rats

Msc.Amal umran musa; Msc. Shatha Hussein kadhim; Msc. Zahraa abed al- kreem; Msc. Moayad Mijbil ubaid

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 36-43

Hepatotoxicity is an acute adverse effect of paracetamol overdose which could be fatal, so in
this research we studied the effect of paracetamol on liver enzymes (GPT, GOT, total protein,
glucose, bilirubin) of female rats that drenched Artichoke. twenty laboratory female rats housed in
plastic cages in animal house at university Karbala of / college of pharmacy , the animals divided
randomly into four groups ,(G1 control, G2 drenched with 500 mg/kg Artichoke and 500 mg/kg
paracetamol, G3 drenched with 500 mg/kg paracetamol ,G4 drenched with 500 mg/kg Artichoke ) ,
the present study found the ability of Artichoke to protect liver enzyme against the poisonous effect
of paracetamol by reducing the higher value of GPT,GOT, glucose, and evaluated the lower value
of bilirubin and total protein causing by paracetamol. Histopathological changes in liver were
greatly reduced on animals treated with artichoke and paracetamol when compared with the
paracetamol group .However, animals treated with paracetamol showed severe congestion in central
vein and there is inflammatory cell and degeneration in hepatocyte enlargement in sensoides and
necrosis and odema.

Genetic study of different genes in the formation and metabolism of neurosteroids and cholesterol

Jenan M. Mohsen Al Mosawi; Alaa Abdul Razzaq Al Nuaimi; Farah Riadh Zayny

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 44-55

Some of the neurodegenerative diseases is Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's
disease, which can arise due to damage to nerve cells in the elderly. This study
examines the different genes that express enzymes for the formation and metabolism
of neurosteroids and cholesterol. The purpose of the study is to investigate which
genes are expressed in the CNS, and that could affect the functions of the brain via the
formation and metabolism of neurosteroids. The study used the human cell line SHSY5
as the model for neuronal cells. By knowing which genes nerve cells express
would in future be able to study the effect of different drugs can have in the formation
of steroid metabolites that affect brain functions.
Methods used in this study, RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction)
and gel electrophoresis to qualitatively examine gene expression in neuroblastoma.
Results from the study suggested that SH-SY5Y cells express some but not all genes
involved in the formation and metabolism of steroid hormones and cholesterol. PCR
experiments, showed expression of the genes for the enzymes CYP19A1 and 17-
hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) and the estrogen receptor ER-β.
One conclusion that can be drawn from the results of this study is to neuroblastoma
cell line SH-SY5Y may constitute a possible cell model for future research on
hormonal effects and the effect of various drugs on the formation of neurosteroids that
influence brain functions.
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the SH-SY5Y cells (neuroblastoma
cells) can express genes required for the formation and metabolism of cholesterol and
steroid hormones (neurosteroids). The study also intends to investigate which genes
can participate and which is expressed in the formation of steroid metabolites that
affect brain functions.

Evaluation of prostate-specific antigen in patients with urinary tract infection

Hashim Ali Abdulameer Alsherees

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 56-60

Evaluation of prostate-specific antigen in patients with urinary tract infection. Blood
samples were collected from patients with UTI and healthy control. Prostate Specific
Antigen (PSA) in patients and healthy control were estimated using ELISA system. the
study current included 50 patients suffering with UTI and 40 of the control group
(healthy). Patients age groups ranged between 35-58 years and divided into four groups
according to their age percentage 30% patients among 35-40 years, 22% patients among
41-46 years and 18 % patients among 47-53 years and 30% patients among 53-58 years.
Mean concentration of the PSA level in patients serum with UTI was the high
concentration in normal PSA levels (11.5±4.4) and (14.3±3.9) in high PSA levels of the
age groups (53-58 years), In comparison with healthy groups (control). The results study
of PSA level in serum with the age groups that their correlated between patients with
UTI were significantly different (P<0.01). Significant relationships between total
prostate specific antigen levels and male. The detection of genotypes for prostatespecific
antigen in a patient. Furthermore, it needed to detection early diagnosis in cases
of urinary tract infection in male and early treatment to avoid complication.

Synthesis and Characterization of Some New heterocyclic derivatives and Study Their antibacterial activity.

Ibtisam K.Jassim; Ghazwan H.A.AL-Sumaidaie; Sarah S.K.AL-Shejary

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 61-80

This work includes preparation of different types of heterocyclic compounds. These
compounds including pyrazol, phthalazin, pyridazin, oxazole, thiazol. Thestructures of
these compounds were identified by FT-IR,H-NMR,Uv spectroscopy and checked by TLC
and study the anti-bacterial activities for some of the synthesized compounds. These
activities were determined in vitro using well diffusion method against three types
pathogenic strains bacteria staphylococcus aureus(G+), E.coli and proteus vulgaris(G-).
The results revealed that some of these compounds showed measurable activity.

Accuracy Of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology In The Diagnosis Of Different Thyroid Lesions

Fatin Hasim Ali

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 81-94

FNA is a non-invasive method, whose simplicity and safety justify its use for “selective” surgery
and is considered the “gold standard” in the management of thyroid nodules.
The main aim of FNAC is to identify nodules that require surgery and those benign nodules that
can be observed clinically and decrease the overall thyroidectomy rate in patients with benign
diseases., this study was done to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration
cytology as a pre-operative screening methods, it is a prospective study which includes a total of
100 cases for patients aged 13-64 years presented with goiter during the period Jan. 2013- Jan.
2015 in Al Hussain Teaching Hospital in Kerbala. This study resulted in true negative cases
were 81 (Tn), false negative case was 1 ( Fn), True positive were 13 (Tp), and false positive
were 5 cases (Fp).Sensitivity or true positive rate is 92%, Specificity or true negative rate is
94%, Positive predictive value is 72%, Negative predictive value is 98%, Accuracy rate is
94%. False negative FNA cytology result was found in only one of our patients which is less as
compared to other studies where the values range from 1-16%. False negative cases are
encountered when there are no recognizable diagnostic cells in the smear because of sampling
or processing error. We concluded that FNA is the most recommended diagnostic procedure for
the diagnosis of thyroid lesions except follicular tumor.

Preparation and in vitro Evaluation of Acyclovir Suspension

Ahmed N. Abood

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 95-109

The suspension is one of the successful oral liquid dosage forms. It has many
advantages such as increase the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs.
Acyclovir is poorly water soluble drug. It is antiviral agent, which is commonly
indicated for treatment of wide variety of viral infections; e.g., herpes simplex,
varicella zoster in children and adults.
The aim of this study, was preparation of acyclovir suspension dosage form using
single ionic type surfactant; sodium stearate was used as suspending and flocculating
agent. The flocculating ability of sodium stearate was assessed via measuring the
sedimentation volume. Acacia also was added as thickening agent and its ability to
impart a more stable successful suspension was evaluated. In this work, the
sedimentation volume, content uniformity and viscosity were studied for several
formulas containing different ranges of sodium stearate (from 0.5% to 3) in
combination with or without acacia at different concentrations (1% to 2%). Sodium
stearate was found to be able to give a flocculated system at concentrations higher
than 1%. The sedimentation volume (F) was found to be equals to (F= 1), which is an
ideal flocculated system; however, the resultant dispersion is thick and very hard to be
handled. Also the addition of acacia did not enhance the stability of the dispersed

Sensitivity and specificity of Rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated protein antibody positivity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in karbala city

Alaa Saad Al-Attabi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 110-115

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is systemic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology
which characterize by joint and systemic involvement can lead to sever disability. The
rheumatoid factor is one of the main serological test for diagnosis but is of low
specificity since it is found in healthy people and other diseases . Anti- citrullinated
protein antibody (anti-CCP) which is more specific and less sensitive is considered as
another serological marker for diagnosis of RA. So that this was done to measure the
sensitivity and specificity of RF and anti-CCP in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
The study included 260 patient with RA and 130 healthy subjects their sera were
used for measuring RF by latex agglutination technique and measuring anti-CCP by
ELISA technique. This study was found the sensitivity ,specificity , positive
predictive value and negative predictive value for RF were (86.9%) , (96%)
,(97%)and (78%) respectively , while those for AntiCCP were 73% ,100% ,
(100%)and (65%) respectively. The p value for RF anti-CCP antibodies test was <
0.01 which indicate significant difference between patients and control group .So
anti-CCP more specific and less sensitive than RF ,although it can be depended on RF
for initial diagnosis , treatment and prevention of joint disabling .Seronegative
patients did not exclude RA so must seek for another investigation such as anti-CCP.
Measuring RFand anti-CCP at the same time increase sensitivity for diagnosis.

Enamel surface damage after Use of self-etched Flowable composite and conventional orthodontic bonding systems "An in vitro study"

Rawof R. Al-Tuma

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 116-123

Background: This study aims to evaluate enamel surface damage and the site of bond failure after
using of two materials with each has different adhesive techniques. One of them is self-etch (7th
generation bonding system) while the other with three steps conventional technique(5th generation
bonding system).
Materials and methods: eighty premolars, extracted for orthodontic purposes, were divided into 4
groups of 20. The enamel surfaces were examined with 10X magnifying lens. Two types of
bracket (stainless steel and ceramic) was bonded and debonded in each group using ligature wire
cutter. The three steps adhesives was conventional orthodontic bracket adhesive of Oromco
company, the self-etch flowable adhesive was Vertise flow flowable composite of Kerr company
;After debonding, the enamel surfaces were inspected under a stereomicroscope to determine the
predominant site of bond failure and adhesive remnant index. Then stereomicroscope was used to
evaluate enamel surface damage after the removal of residual adhesive.
Results: The reduction in enamel surface damage showed a statistically non-significant with the
use of self-etched flowable adhesive in both ceramic and stainless steel brackets groups. The
amount of the adhesive remained on the tooth surface significantly increase for groups that
bonded with self-etched flowable adhesive in both stainless steel and ceramic brackets. The
predominant failure site in self-etch flowable adhesive was between enamel and bracket for both
types of brackets.
Conclusion: The enamel surface damage that results from debonding of conventional orthodontic
adhesives was non significantly higher than that found with self-etch flowable adhesive for both
metal and ceramic brackets "used in this study"

Epidemiological study for common causes of diarrhea disease among children under 5 years of age in some Iraqi province

Karem kdaer karem; Bara majed khlaif

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 124-130

Background: Acute diarrheal disease among children less than 5 years old remains a
major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Severe infectious diarrhea in children
occurs most frequently under circumstances of poor environmental sanitation and
hygiene, inadequate water supplies, and poverty. In Iraq the control of diarrheal disease (
CDD), including promotion of breast-feeding, oral rehydration therapy and specific
health education is a part of national strategies aiming to improve the quality of life and
reduce the burdens caused by diseases.
Objectives: the study aimed to identify the most common causes of diarrheal disease
among children aged less than five years admitted to pediatrics Hospitals in some Iraq
Patient and method:Hospitals in five Iraq provinces, karbala, Dyala, Hila, and Najaf
during 12 months of 2013 received 1639 cases of diarrhea disease among children under
5 years of age, a hospital – based cross sectional study was performed a respective cases
was defined as a child having three or more loose, liquid, or watery stools or at least one
bloody loose stool within the last 24 hours. Accordingly, all cases admitted to general
pediatrics Hospital between January and December 2013, which fulfilled the inclusion
criteria were recruited into the study.
Results: in current study shows statistical prevalence to bacteria spp. (0.006) and
Giardiasis among Dyala province at p. value (0.001) as well as highly significant
difference between Entamaebea. Histolytica.and Karbala city at p. value (0.001), among
other pathogens in our study provinces.
Conclusion: our study revealed some of pathogens can lead to cause diarrhea disease
among children under 5 years of age especially E. histolytica and Giardia Lamblia in
some Iraq province so demonstrate poor hygiene and educational health and inadequate
safe water supply and food safety.caused by diarrhea among children less than five years
of age in the district.

Bacterial profile and antibiogram of bacteremic Children in Karbala city ,Iraq

Al-mousawi M. R

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 131-139

A prospective study was carried out on 250 cases of bacteremia in pediatric age groups
with fever and suspected bacteremia in children seen and admitted the Pediatric Teaching
Hospital in Kerbala. This study was started from May 2014 to March 2015. Clinical and
microbiological data were obtained from patient medical records. After culturing, the blood
samples resulted were 103(41%) positive cultures ,consisting of 45(43.86 %) Grampositive
bacterial isolates and 58 (56.14%) Gram-negative isolates, represented by
Staphylococcus aureus (19.4%), alpha hemolytic Streptococcus (17.5%), ,E.coli
(14.6%), Klebsiella pneumonia (9.71 %), Enterobacter cloaca (6.8 %), Enterococcus
fecalis (5.83 %), Non hemolytic streptococcus (4.85 %), Proteus mirabilis and
Acinitobacter buamani (3.88 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.91 %), Ci t robacter
(1.94 %), B-hemolytic Streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumonia , Kluyvera spp ,
Ewingella americana , Haemophilus influenza, Raoulktella ornitholyticus , Providencia
rettgeri , Serritia rabidaen and Pseudomonas luteola was (0.97). The major infection of
Bacteremia was most common in neonates(0-1 month)(63. 1%), more frequently seen in
infant (1 month-2 years ) (26%) less than in children 9% and in adolescent . All bacterial
strains isolated from patients were submitted to sensitivity testing, results showed various
reactions toward different types of antibiotics used in this study.

Antibacterial Study of Polyvinyl alcohol / Poly vinyl pyrrolidone / Cellulose Ternary Polymer Blends

Maha A. Younus; Dhefaf H. Alqudsy; Saad A. Ahmed; Bassam Ibrahim Khalil

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 140-144

In this study, different weight percent of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/ poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)
(PVP)/ Cellulose (CELL) blend solutions were prepared by solution blending followed by preparing of
polymer metal complexes with Ag (I), Cu (II), Ni (II) and Co(II). Antibacterial properties were
evaluated by dilute method against five pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonae ,
Pseudomonas aeruginasa,, Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus Albus ) . Polymer metal complexes
showed different activities against the various microbial isolates. The polymer blend metal complexes
showed higher activity than the free polymer blends.

Effect of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO) on endometrium thickness (ET) - Ova size in infertile women in Kerbala a descriptive study

Mousa M. Ali Al-Alak; Zahraa Sabbar Omran; Zina Hasan Abdul-Qahar

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 145-149

Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system defined by failure achieve a clinical pregnancy
or inability of a couple to conceive naturally after 12 months or more regular intercourse
without contraception. Thyroid dysfunction can lead to menstrual disturbance, anovulatory
cycle and decreased fertility. Autoimmune thyroid diseases are the most common autoimmune
conditions encountered in females in reproductive age characterized by presence of antibodies
against some structures of thyroid gland such as thyroid peroxidase (TPO); which is the key
thyroid enzyme catalyzing both the iodination and coupling reaction for the synthesis of thyroid
hormone. Anti-TPO autoantibodies are present in approximately 90% of patients with
autoimmune thyroid diseases.The study aimed to evaluate the role of thyroid antibodies in
subfertility patients on ova size and endometrium thickness. The study was conducted during
the period from March 2015 to September 2015 at Karbala Maternity Hospital, infertility unit,
and some private clinics. This study included a total number of 92 women in the reproductive
age; ranging between (15- 43) years; divided patients into: primary infertility included (56);
while secondary infertility were (36) infertility females. The following parameter were
measured for all study groups: anti-TPO using ELISA device .Additionally, ultrasound was
done to measure the ova size and endometrial thickness. The results showed a significant
difference between primary and secondary infertility in TPO, when relation between TPO with
ova size and endometrial thickness there is a significant difference between TPO and ova size in
abnormal TPO and a significant difference between TPO and ET in abnormal TPO in infertile
women. There is a relation between ova size and TPO, anti-TPO may be used as a biochemical
indicator of subclinical thyroid disorders and may help in assessment of thyroid function as a
cause of infertility whether primary or secondary.

Total Antioxidant Capacity and Some Risk Factors in Iraqi Smokers with Acute Myocardial Infarction

Fadhil J. Al-Tu; Riyadh D. Al-Zubaidi; Abdulmutalb B. M. Al-Khaleeli

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 150-156

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the major causes of mortality and
morbidity in the world. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play important role in the
pathogenesis in myocardial infarction. Cigarette smoke is a major exogenous source of free
radicals which is a heterogeneous aerosol consisting of more than 4000 compounds including high
concentrations of free radicals, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Total antioxidant capacity
(TAC) was studied in most cases in serum, and may be used as a marker of the body antioxidant
status. The recent applications of the TAC status in medical and nutritional studies as well as future
possible uses of TAC level as a biomarker for diagnosis, prognosis and prevention of respiratory,
diabetes, heart and vascular system, chronic renal injury, neurological, cancer diseases.
Aim: Study the correlation between the total antioxidant capacity level with lipid profile changing
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during the period from Nov. 2014 to Sep. ,
2015. Fifty eight patients presented with typical chest pain to the cardiac care unit in Al-Hussein
Teaching Hospital, Al-Hussein Medical City/ Kerbela Health Directorate and Department of
Biochemistry–College of Medicine / University of Kerbala. The diagnosis was based on the clinical
history, presentation confirmed by ECG and various investigations of cardiac biomarker. Thirty five
persons age – matched healthy volunteers were selected as a control group. The age, weight,
height, lipid profile, TAC were measured in sera of all subjects
Results: The results revealed that serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-C and LDL-C were
significantly increased (P < 0.01) but serum HDL-C level was significant decreased (P < 0.01) in
non-smoker AMI patients as compared with that found in non-smoker controls, while serum TAC ,
BMI and age was non-significantly different between non-smoker patients and non-smoker healthy
control groups (p > 0.05). The results of smoking AMI show non-significant differences in levels of
total serum cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-C, LDL-C and a significantly decreased in serum HDLC
as compared with smoker control. On the other hand BMI was non-significantly different
between smoker patients and smoker healthy control groups (p > 0.05), while the results obtained
show that a significant decrease in TAC in smoker AMI patient group in comparison with smoker
normal control group (p < 0.05), and significant different age in smoker AMI patient group in
comparison with smoker normal control group (p < 0.05).

Evaluation of Organochlorine pesticide and Fates in the Women Milk in Al- Muthanna Province-Iraq

Eyhab R.M.AL-Samawy; Wafaa Abdulmutalib Naji

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 157-165

The objective of this study was to investigate Organochlorine pesticide
(OCPs) and Fates (F) levels in the breast milk of lactating healthy women
who were living in Al Muthanna province of Iraq according to the region and
age of mother and to determine the relationship between the selected
parameters under the study. Seventy breast milk samples collected between
January 2015 to March 2015 from healthy lactating women at different stages
of lactation, from 5 days to 72 weeks postpartum in morning. The breast milk
samples were collected by self-milking. (OCPs) in milk samples were
measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), while the
fats were done by soxhlet extractor. Results of the current study (according to
the minitab statistical program) revealed a very high significant variation
between the levels of (OCPs) and (F) in the breast milk of mothers in the
rural (R) and urban (U) regions (P< 0.001), and there are positive relationship
between the both parameter in the samples of milk and the concentration of
(OCPs) and (F) in women aged < 25 years lower than the concentration of
(OCPs) and (F) in women aged ≥ 25 years. This high difference was
statistically significant for (F) (P < 0.01), but non-significant for (OCPs)

Serum procalcitonin and plasma D-Dimer evaluation in pregnancy Conjugate with pre-eclampsia mild & severe pre-eclampsia versus normal pregnancy

A. H; Shaker; A. N; Noaman; A. N; Noaman

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 166-178

Pre- eclampsia is a common and heterogeneous syndrome of human
pregnancy. Normal pregnancies are associated with inflammatory and hemostatic
changes. The maternal syndrome of pre- eclampsia results from a systemic
inflammatory response that involves the entire inflammatory network of the
circulation, including the endothelium. Procalcitonin is an inflammatory marker
which is raised in pre eclampsia .Normal pregnancy causes the maternal plasma DDimer
level to increase progressively from conception until delivery .It is accepted
that the hemostatic system is disturbed in pre eclamptic patients , but the effect or
relationship with d dimer level and PET remains to elucidate .
Aim of this study was to evaluate serum procalcitonin (PCT) , and plasma DDimer
levels in mild and severe pre-eclampsia.
Prospective case control study carried out in department of obstetrics and
gynecology /Baghdad Teaching Hospital /Medical City /Baghdad /Iraq .
Serum procalcitonin (PCT), and D-Dimer levels were determination in 40
cases with pre-eclampsia as the study group and 40 healthy pregnant women in the
third trimester as the control group. Pre-eclamptic group consisted of mild (n = 20)
and severe pre-eclamptic subgroup (n = 20).
Laboratory results were compared between the groups and diagnostic usefulness of
these parameters were evaluated.
Serum procalcitonin (PCT) PCT, and D-Dimer levels were significantly
higher in study group than the control group (P <0.001). PCT, and D-Dimer were
significantly higher in the patients with severe pre-eclampsia than mild VIII preeclampsia(
p=0.012)There were significant positive correlations between these
markers and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Logistic regression analysis using the
control and pre-eclampsia group showed that higher PCT (OR,6.12; 95%-CI, 3.30-
13.50), and D-Dimer levels (OR,4.41; 95%-CI,2.8-9.18)were found to be risk factors
significantly associated with pre-eclampsia.
This study results confirm that evidence of a possible exaggerated systemic
inflammatory response in pre eclampsia especially
in severe pre- eclampsia

Derivative spectrophotometric method for estimation of Chlorphinramine Maleat in pure and its formulation Phenadone

Al Samaraee; E.Th

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 179-191

A simple, sensitive, economic, accurate and precise first (D1) and second (D2)
derivative spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of
Chlorpheniramine maleate in pure and syrup form . The method obeys Beer’s Law in
concentration range of 5-45μg/ml employed for evaluation . The quantitative
determination of the drug was carried out using the first and second derivative values
by measured ; peak to base line at ( 274 nm and 236 nm for first derivative) and (282
nm , 262 nm and 241 nm for second derivative ) , peak to peak at ( 274 nm – 263 nm
for first derivative ) and ( 282 nm-262 nm and 262 nm – 241 nm for second
derivative ) and peak area at ( 290 nm – 264 nm and 264 nm – 226 nm for first
derivative ) and at (304 nm -274 nm , 274 nm – 254 nm , 254 nm – 232 nm for second
derivative ) in 1:10% absolute ethanol: distal water . The results of analysis were
validated by recovery studies . The recovery and RSD was ( 102.916-95.555 % ) and (
0.751 – 0.006 %) respectively . The proposed method can be used for the routine
quality control testing of the marketed formulations .

;hfChanges in serum potassium and serum creatinine in hypertensive patients treated with Captopril with or without amlodipine

Hassan A. A. Nassrullah; Kadhum Abbas Al- Hilaly; Haider Sobhy Al Hadad; Ali A.K. Abutiheen

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 192-201

Background. Renal function and serum potassium are affected by many drugs.
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors and calcium channel blockers used to treat
hypertension and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used for musculoskeletal
diseases. Those drugs affect both the renal function and the serum potassium. The aim
of this study was to find the impact of these drugs on the renal function and serum
Methods. A prospective study includes 60 patients in Al Hussain Teaching hospital
in Kerbala. Sixty patients were involved in this study 27 male and 33 female, their
age ranges between 41 and 65 years with a mean age of 52.98 years.
All patients had hypertension and 34 of them had diabetes mellitus also. All patients
started on captopril, 13 of them amlodipine added for them to control blood pressure,
and 11 used none steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Serum potassium and serum
creatinine were checked twice before starting treatment and the average value
recorded and checked again after 3 months. Physical examination was done during
the follow-up visits to look for symptoms and signs of hyperkalemia e.g. weakness,
fatigability, parasthesia, or areflexia. Electrographic recording done to look for
changes of hyperkalemia.
A significant increase in serum potassium and creatinine after starting treatment in
the whole group. Regard the gender there were significant differences in both the
serum potassium and serum creatinine in female patients but the differences were not
significant in male patients.
There was a significant difference in serum potassium in patients receiving captopril
alone but not in serum Creatinine. There was difference in serum potassium and
serum creatinine in the group of patients receiving captopril and amlodipine and
statistically were significant. Changes were significant in diabetic patients but not in
hypertensive patients.
Conclusion. Captopril, amlodipine result in an increase in serum potassium and in
serum creatinine in patients treated for hypertension.

Effect of phenolic compounds extract of S. melongena peels on Sugar levels and biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced Diabetic rats

Yasmine H. Jassim; Ayad F. Palani; Atallah B. Dakeel

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 202-209

Diabetes mellitus is a serious complex chronic condition that is a major problem of health
worldwide. Recent studies focused on the ability of phenol compounds in the treatment of
diabetes mellitus and its complications. In the present study, phenol compounds of Solanum
melongena peels were extracted and diagnosed using HPLC, and the extract administrated to
alloxan induced diabetic rat. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of phenol
extracts of S. melongena peels on sugar, lipid and liver enzymes in alloxan induced diabetes
in rats. Serum glucose level, lipid profile, GOT and GPT enzymes were estimated and results
were statistically calculated by ANOVA and the differences were considered significant at p
value ≤0.05. Results showed that the administration of phenols extract decreased the glucose
level in the phenols administrated diabetic rat. Also phenols extract decreased cholesterol,
triglyceride and LDL level, and increased serum HDL level diabetic rat. The phenol
compounds also showed the ability to detoxify liver via lowering GOT and GPT enzymes in
phenols administrated diabetic rat.

Buccal cortical bone thickness evaluation using tomographic imaging prior mini implant placement

Dr. Ali S. Al-Haddad

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 210-213

The mini implants, which were originally designed to fix bony segments, has shown great
promise as a simpler and more versatile solution for obtaining absolute anchorage, No Osseo
integration is required. Mini implants are placed in many anatomic sites, depending on the
indication and the biomechanics used. One of the most popular sites of placement is the buccal
cortical plate of mandible. So that this study was done to evaluate the tomographic imaging in
measuring buccal cortical bone thickness as an adjunctive radiographic technique for an
appropriate mini implants site selection. 30 patients were imaged by using a tomographic
technique from planmeca panoramic machine (planmeca Promax, Helsinki, Finland) mesial to
mandibular first molars choosing'' mixed tomo,'' ''3xCRS 1 LNG'' (3 cross sectional and 1
longitudinal) with 95s radiographic time, 1 mA and 68 kV parameters, making measurements by
using planmeca Romexis software 3.1.1.R version at four deferent levels 2,4,6,8 mm from the
alveolar crest with 0.1mm width cursor to measure the buccal cortical bone thickness prior mini
implants placement . This study was resulted in that by comparing with panoramic radiograph,
measuring cortical bone thickness, intercortical bone thickness and interradicular space using
tomographic radiograph become a more valuable wise than panoramic radiograph. In conclusion,
tomographic radiograph may acquire a new radiographic indication prior mini implants
placement for orthodontic anchorage replacing dental panoramic radiograph and periapical

Comparing capillary blood glucose measures with venous blood glucose evaluated by the diabetes unit of the AL-Sadder Hospital, Basra, Iraq.

Falah Hassan Shari

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 216-224

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease associated with long-term complications, damage,
dysfunction, and failure of different organs, including the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and
blood vessels. Blood glucose monitoring by measuring glucose levels using test strips in
home-monitoring or venous blood glucose measuring in laboratory can improve the
monitoring of hyperglycemia in DM also can evaluat the patient complaince. Validation of
accuracy and reliability of different glucometers is important to variation in measurements
may be attributed to different factors, may be affected by the environment in which
glucometers and strips are stored, user dependent factors (operational technique). The aim is
to compare capillary blood glucose measures with venous blood glucose by different devices.
This prospective randomized study was conducted between January 2014 and May 2014 in
Al-Sadder teaching hospital in Basra, Iraq, to compare the results of measurment blood
glucose level of two glucose meters (AccuChek® active (Roche Diagnostics, Basel,
Switzerland) and Optium Xceed® (MediSense UK, Abingdon, UK) with standard venous
glucose measurment using spectrophotometry (hexokinase). One hundred non intensive care
unit patients who had been admitted for a variety of medical and surgical problems had been
included in the study. All the patients had previously been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus
and under 60 years of age.The results revealed significant differences in glucose levels
measured using optimal xeed glucose meter when we compared with Accu check glucose
meter and those values measured using standerd venouse glucose mesurment. We conclude
that The Accu check glucose meter was more accurate than xeed glucose meter, as compared
with ordinary serum glucose measurement by spectrophotometer.

Relationship between Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1 gene polymorphism and hypertension

Fadhil Jawad Al-Tu; Zena Abdul-Ameer Mahdi; Hassan Ali Nassrallah

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 225-235

This study intends to evaluate the association between Transforming Growth Factor - Beta1
(TGF-β1) SNP codon 25 and hypertension in holy Kerbala city, Iraq. A case control study
for one hundred and four subjects. Seventy four hypertensive patients (23 male and 51
female), already diagnosed with essential hypertension, and 30 control subjects (16 male
and 14 female). The links between genotype and hypertension were examined then possible
SNP related variances in the blood pressure were checked. The present study suggested that
there is no significant association between transforming growth factor beta one (TGF-β1)
and hypertension in its Iraqi population sample. However, there is a significant association
between Arginine (Arg25) and hypertension compared with control group clearly shown in
the male gender (p < 0.05). In this study, the associations between the SNP of TGF-β1
codon 25 and hypertension was not significant while the SNP showed genotype-related
differences in gene allele (Arg25).

In vitro evaluation of formulation factors: the granule size and type of binder upon physiochemical characterisation of paracetamol capsules

Alshawi Malathe Abdul latif; Mohammed Sabar

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 236-245

Paracetamol is antipyretic and analgesic agent. It has been used for long time in different types of dosage forms. Capsule is one of the common dosage forms that characterized by ease of production and faster release in comparison to tablet. The release of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from capsules is dictated by formulation factors of binder and particle size of the granules. Those factors were investigated here to find out the appropriate binder and the optimum granule size. In addition, characterization of the flow properties, friability of the granules, the actual content, the release profile, kinetic of release were investigated
It was found that the optimum granule size in term of flow property is 25-mesh size. There was no significant difference in release profile among all the examined binders (starch, acacia, and PEG4000). However, using of PEG4000 as binder gives granules with reasonable hardness that can with stand subsequent process (i.e., capsule filling). These facts make PEG4000 as binder to be more preferable.

Synthesis and characterization of some new N-mannich bases for clonazepam

Maha S. H. Alnuaimi; Khalaf F Alsamarrai; Athraa Aameed jassim

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 246-255

The N- Mannich bases (1-10) have been synthesized by reaction of clonazepam with
formaldehyde or benzaldehyde and different secondary amines. The N-Mannich bases
were subjected to physicochemical studies like melting point determination, TLC and
yield%. The structures of mannich bases were characterized by IR, 1HNMR and
13CNMR spectroscopy.

A study of sICAM-1,sVCAM-1 and sE-Selectin Profile in type II diabetes and latent autoimmune diabetes of adult.

Sawsan M Jabbar Al-Hasnawi; Alaa Saad Al-Attabi; Zainab Abdu Al Ruda

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 256-269

Intercellular adhesion molecule 1( ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule
VCAM-1 are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily bind to other
members of the superfamily, to integrins or to a diverse range of additional
counter-receptors. E-selectin which is presented on endothelial cells when its
activated acutely. Serum levels of adhesion molecules like ICAM-1 measurement
are possible after shedding of these molecules from active surface of endothelial
cells and macrophages in diabetes patients following hyperglycemia as in patient
with LADA and type II diabetes mellitus .So that this study was done for
measuring serum level of ICAM-1,VCAM-1 and E-Selectin Profile in type II
diabetes and latent autoimmune diabetes of adult and study their relation with
level of HbA1C , gender , age ,BMI and complication of diabetes. In the study the
serum of 36 patients with type2 diabetes mellitus ,34 patients with LADA and
20 healthy subjects test by ELISA technique for measuring the level of ICAM-
1,VCAM-1 and E-selectin . The study resulted in the mean sVCAM-1level of
control group was significantly lower than D.M.2 and LADA group, P<0.05. The
sE- Selectin level was higher in LADA group than control and D.M. type 2
group & significantly different when compared to control group (P<0.05). The
sVCAM-1 level had a significant positive correlation (R=0.25, P=0.017) with
BMI in all groups. High level of (sICAM-1,sVCAM-1 and sE-Selectin ) are
associated with increased incidence of complication .

Relationship between polycythaemia with increased lipid profile

Dr.Ahmed Saadi Hassan

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 270-276

Background" Polycythemia" is depending on or absolute enlargement in the number of circulating
RBC resulting in an increased "PCV" (packed cell volume) , relationship with suitable patients can
lipideamia اhave
The target in this study relationship between polycythaemia with increased lipid profile .
Methodology measured the number of mingle RBC ensuing in an increased PCV; Relationship with
fit people can have high levels lipid profile.
Results: This study involved research 64 patients (average age between 20 – 35 years ) suffering
from polycythaemia " diagnose by lipid profile performed pcv test ( packed cell volume ) "and
perform lipid profile test (Triglyceride , cholesterol , LDL , HDL ) and appearance of the results
found relationship between increased levels of lipid and polycythaemia disease . There results are
. (cholesterol %(45
HDL).%22)( LDL%39)(Triglyceride%58)
Conclusion from this study we can conclude from that the most polycythaemia patient blood
stream very slow due to the cholesterol deposit to the vine wall.

Response of two species of basil plant (Ocimum spp.L.) to spraying with methionine and salicylic acid on some qualitative character and volatile oil yield

Eman Fiasal Hassan Al-Shukry; Jamal Ahmed Abbas

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 277-298

A field experiment was conducted in privet field at Kerbala governorate to investigate
the response of two species of basil plant Ocimum spp.L to foliar spray with
methionine and salicylic acid and their interaction in growth and yield components
during the growing season 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. Aspilt- plot Design experiment
with RCBD and 3 replicates, and three factors. the first, two species of basil, the first
was Ocimum kilimandsharicum L. and the second was local species Ocimum
basillicum L. they planted in the main plots. The second factor was the foliar spray
with 3 levels of Methionine (0 , 100 , 200 mg.L-1) was distributed in the sub- plots
and the third factor, foliar spray with salicylic acid at 3 level ( 0 , 50 , 100 mg.L-1 )
distributed in sub-sub-plots. The results was statistically analysis using SAS and the
means were compared using LSD at 5% .
The result of this study can be summarized as follows : the local species was
superior than the Camphor species on both seasons in the leaves content of total
chlorophyll , carotene , phenol , amino acids . the percentage of volatile oil and
volatile oil yield per unit area and they one 151.55 , 138.90 mg .100g -1 fresh weight ,
o.255 , 0.211 mg .100g -1 fresh weight , 194.08 , 186.10 mg .100g -1 fresh weight ,
0.758 , 0.692 % , 3.900 , 2.124 % and 62.78 , 45.73 L.ha-1 .
Foliar spray with methionine at a concentration 200mg.L-1 and salicylic acid at a
concentration 100mg.L-1 significantly effected on the leaves content of (chlorophyll ,
carotene , phenols , amino acid, percentage of volatile oil , volatile oil yield per unit
area .
The interaction between the two and three factors significantly effected on the on
qualitative characters .

Synthesis and characterization of new complexes of schiff bases derived from "sulfanilamide" with metal ions Hg+2, Zn+2 and evaluation their biological activity

Rusul.M.Al-kateeb; Safaa A. Al-Samarrai; Malath Kh. Rasheed

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 299-313

A new four Schiff bases synthesized by the condensation of the aromatic amine
compound: 4-amino benzenesulfonamide with the four aromatic aldehyde
compounds: 4-chloroBenzaldehyde, 4-BromoBenzaldehyde, 4-HydroxyBenzaldehyde
and 4-(N,N-dimethyl) aminoBenzaldehyde, Also a complexes of pervious ligands were
synthesized with the metal ions with molarity ratio (1:2) M:L. The synthesized
compounds were characterized by physical and spectroscopic measurements (IR
spectrum and proton NMR spectrum, elemental analysis C.H.N, Molar conductivity).
All the synthesized complexes were formed tetra-coordinate complexes and the
supposed chemical formula of the consequent complexes:[M(L)2Cl2]. The Biological
activity were evaluated for the synthesized compounds against two types of bacteria
E.Coli and S.aureus, most of complexes shown anti-bacterial activity.

Chemical study of Urtica dioica L. and Equisetum arvene L. and Artemisia Campestris L.

Sayran sattar saleh; IlhamNazhanNumman

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 314-324

In this study the gel filtration used for protein isolation which diagnosted by two ways the
spectrum of infrared and molish reagent . and the study proved that the aqueous extracts of Equisetum
arvense containing the largest amount of protein . the results proved that of aqueous extract which
prepared in hot and cold method containing tanning , glycocides , saponin and alkaloid . finally the
atomic absorption of the aqueous extract which prepared in hot and cold method proved that these
aqueous extracts containing calcium Ca+2 , sodium Na+ , potassium K+ , magnesium Mg+2 in different

Determination Asprien by High Performance Liquid chromatography (HPLC)

Semaa Hamed Ahmad

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 325-333

This research in includes determination Asprien by using high Liquid chromategraphitic
technique by using Licrosorb C-18 column, That studies to quantitative estimate The study
is organic rate in dynamic and component from regular solution (0.02 sodium acetate) at
pH=7 The study rate is dynamic flow (1 ML/Min) .
The linearity of concentration (0.1-0.001)M and correlation coefficient ( 0.9926) The
relative standard deviation RSD % (0.49-0.72) and detection Limits were (0.1) M and
percent relative errors were (1.20-1-0.60) respectively with percent recovery ranged (93-
96)% .

Study the effectiveness of the volatile oils of Pimipinlla anisum, Thymus vulgaris and Saliva officinalis an antidote Pediculosis humanus

Mohammed Jasim Jawad

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 334-338

Most of the volatile oils found in medicinal plants have important biological activities like
antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasite. The main of this study is to investigate the killing
effect of the volatile oils found in Thymus vulgaris, Salvia officinalis and Pimipinilla anisum
on the some parasites and insects like Pediiculosis humanus that infect migrants lived in
Karbla city. The oils under investigation were used separately and in mixed formula.
Preparation of cream containing these three oils was also investigated. Control sample was
used to evaluate the results. The results showed a highly positive killing effect of both the oil
used separately and in the cream form. Statistical data revealed a significant differences for
treated samples of mixed oils and the cream form (100%) at 48 hr, while no significant
differences noticed with samples of both Pimipinilla anisum and Thymus vulgaris

Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper(II) using Murexide Reagent

Adnan Majeed Mohammad; Ahmed Jamaal Ibraheem; Mustafa Abdullah Dhiab

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 339-347

a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for
determining copper (II) with Murexide and this method depends on formation of
a stable yellow greenish colored complex at pH=5 where it has a maximum
absorption at 476 nm , the optimal conditions for the formation of complex were
studied . It appeared that the complex real-time, stable complex consists for 30
days . the molecular ratio was identified by the continuous variation method and
mole ratios . the ion reactive ratio ( ion : Reagent ) were 1:2 , Lambert beer's
law obeyed in concentration range of 10 - 80 μ , relative standard
deviation 1.04% , Limit of detection 0.31 μ and molar absorptivity was
1.2x105 . By this method could determine copper (II) with high
precision , accurate and sensitive and agree on high-water samples.