ISSN: 7027-2221

Volume 6, Issue 10

Volume 6, Issue 10, Summer 2015, Page 0-0


Synthesis and study the biological activity of some new heterocyclic compounds

Ahmad Waaled; Salwa A. Jabbar; Ibtisam K. Jassim

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 10, Pages 0-0

This work involves synthesis of different types of heterocyclic compounds. These
compounds including oxadiazole rings and its derivatives. These compounds containing thioester
linkage by reacting the oxadiazoles with different acid chlorides. The prepared compounds were
characterized by FT-IR,H-NMR- MASS and UV/vis spectroscopy.

Epidemiological Study of Toxoplasmosis And Cytomegalovirus in Pregnant Women in Kerbala

Dr. Abdul-Rassol Kh. Saaeed; Karrar Jaber Abed-Nour

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 10, Pages 0-0

Objectives: Identifying the seroprevalence of acute anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-
CMV IgM and chronic IgG antibodies, the environmental and behavioral factors and
some socio demographic data and influencing CMV as co-factor to infected with
Toxoplasma gondii of the study sample.
Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study done on 240 pregnant women(13-43
years old). All the studied women were interviewed and blood samples were taken and
used Minividas technique for detect ion ant ibodies ( IgM and IgG) .
Results: The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody was (28.3%) for
chronic Toxoplasmosis (IgG),and (0.8%) for acute Toxoplasmosis (IgM).While results
for Cytomegalovirus (CMV)infection revealed that (92.08% ) positive for chronic
CMV (IgG) and (0.8%) positive for acute CMV(IgM) ,The peak age for acquisition of
the infection was (20-29 year old ) , There was a statistical significant association
between seroprevalence with cat exposure ,revealed this results significant association
between Toxoplasmosis and CMV infection and influencing CMV as co-factor to
infected with Toxoplasma gondii and proved this results significant association
between seroprevalence Toxoplasmosis and CMV infection with birth defect.

Spectrophtometric determination of Resorcinol in aqueous solutions and some Bulk Samples by coupling with Diazotized 4- Methoxy aniline

Zainab Talib Abd Al-Kadum; Kassim Hassan Kadim

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 10, Pages 0-0

A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of microgram
amounts of Resorcinol in aqueous solution and some bulk samples was described.The method is
based on a diazotization and coupling reaction between resorcinol and diazotized 4-bromo Methoxy
aniline in basic medium to form an intense brown water-soluble dye that is stable, which shows
maximum absorption at 448nm. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of(0.4-4.4)
μg.ml-1 of resorcinol , with a molar absorptivity of 2.7844×104 l mol-1 cm-1, and Sandell sensitivity
index of 0.0039 μg/cm2 The method does not resort to temperature control or to solvent extraction.
The optimum conditions for all colour development are described and proposed methods were
successfully applied to the determination of resorcinol in aqueous solution and some bulk samples.

Synthesis Of Several New Cyclic Imides Linked To [3-Mercapto-5-(4ʹ-tolyl)-1,2,4-triazole]Moiety With Antibacterial Activity Study

Ahlam Marouf Al-Azzawi; Enas Khalil Jassem

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 10, Pages 0-0

In this work a variety of new cyclic imides containing1,2,4-triazole ring
were synthesized via multisteps synthesis.In the first step,p-toluic acid was introduced
in esterification reaction with ethanol,producing compound[1]ethyl-4-methyl
benzoate.Introducing of compound [1]in reaction with hydrazine hydrate in the
second step afforded compound[2]4-tolyl acetohydrazide.Reaction of compound[2]
with carbon disulfide in alkaline medium followed by refluxing the product with
hydrazine hydrate afforded compound[3]3-mercapto-4-amino-5-(4ʹ-tolyl)-1,2,4-
triazole.Compound [3]was introduced in reaction with different cyclic anhydrides
producing a series of new amic acids[4-8]which subsequently were dehydrated via
treatment with acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate producing the
corresponding target imides [9-13]. Antibacterial activity study of the new imides
indicated that,they exhibit good inhibition activity againt the tested organisms.

Isolation and identification of bioactive flavonoids (genistein, rutin) from Portulaca oleracea L. cultivated in Iraq

Zainab J. Awad; Estabraq H. Naser

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 10, Pages 0-0

Portulaca oleracea L. belongs to portulacaeae family which is succulent shrubs contains about
20 genera and 500 species. P. oleracea L. is one of the green vegetables cultivated and wild
grown in Iraq and used largely as food. It contains many active constituents like: alkaloids,
vitamins and minerals such as (potassium, magnesium, omega 3, calcium and iron ), saponins,
cardiac glycosides, flavonoids (genistein, rutin, quercetin) . In this study genistein and rutin were
isolated from P. oleracea L. by the aid of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and
preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC), and identified by FT-IR, and measurement of
melting point (M.P).

Preparation and evaluation of the anti-bacterial Activity for some Formazans

Ibtisam K. Jassim; Fawzi H. Jumaa; Omar M. AbdulMuhsin

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 10, Pages 0-0

In the present research, a series of Formazans derivatives 7a-j have been prepared by
the condensation of Schiff bases (4,5) and diazonium salt of substituted aromatic amines
Heterocycl, 6a-e. The intermediate Schiff bases (4,5), was itself synthesized by condensation of2-
amino benzothiazole (1), with 4-nitro and dimethylamino benzaldehyde, (2,3). All the reaction
were routinely monitored and purity was determind on thin layer chromatography using coated
aluminum plates and spots were visualized by exposing the dry plates in iodine vapours.The
structures of the compounds have been confirmed by , Mass spectroscopy 1H NMR, U.V, IR
spectral data and melting points. The antibacterial activity of the compounds has also been
screened.

Telmisartan Spongelike Particles as Oral Capsule: Effect of Polymer Type and Concentration on the Formulation Properties

Hussam H. Tizkam; Alaa A. Abdul Rassol; Ahmed A. Hussain

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 10, Pages 0-0

Telmisartan (TEL) is a selective angiotensin II receptor blocker used in the management of
cardiovascular disorders. It is a class II drug according to Biopharmaceutics Classification
System (BCS); with poor solubility and high permeability. Due to its hydrophobic nature, TEL
shows low dissolution profile in gastrointestinal fluid resulting in poor absorption, and
consequently poor bioavailability.
The aim of current study is to prepare TEL spongelike particles (SP) system that enhances the
dissolution rate and solubility of TEL. The TEL SP formulas were prepared by quasi-emulsion
solvent diffusion method using different types of polymer, e.g., Eudragit E100, Eudragit RS100,
Eudragit S100, Eudragit RL100 or Eudragit L100. The effect of polymer type and concentration
on the formulation of TEL SP were investigated.
Twenty TEL SP formulations were prepared. They were investigated and characterized for
production yield, loading efficiency and in vitro drug release in 0.1N HCl pH 1.2).
The results showed that the best TEL SP formula was F2 which was prepared using Eudragit
E100 as the SP-forming polymer at drug:polymer ratio of (5:1).
The TEL SP formula (F2) showed good production yield, loading efficiency, and fast dissolution
rate in 0.1 N HCl (more than 80% in less than 30 min). The selected TEL SP formula (F2) was
incorporated into hard gelatin capsules.
Finally, one can conclude that the SP technology can be a promising alternative way for the
formulation of poorly water soluble drugs, such as TEL, into immediate release formulation.
Key wards: Telmisartan, spongelike, solubility, Eudragit.

Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity Evaluation of Several New Sulfonamido Naphthalimides Linked to Benzothiazole or Oxadiazole

Ahlam Marouf Al-Azzawi; Ahmad Solaiman Hamd

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 10, Pages 0-0

In this work several new sulfonamido naphthalimides linked to benzothiazole or oxadiazole
cycles were synthesized via multistep synthesis. The first step involved synthesis of compound [1]
N-phenylnaphthalimide via reaction of aniline with naphthalic anhydride at high temperature in the
presence of glacial acetic acid. In the second step compound [1] was introduced in reaction with
chlorosulfonic acid producing compound [2] 4-(N-naphthalimidyl) phenyl sulfonyl chloride which
inturn introduced subsequently in the third step in reaction with 2-amino-5-substituted-1,3,4-
oxadiazoles producing the target naphthalimides [10, 11] or with substituted 2-aminobenzothiazoles
producing the target naphthalimides [12-16]. Results of antibacterial activity study of the newly
synthesized naphthalimides indicated that they posses high antibacterial activity.

Optimisation of Standard PCR Programme

Zaid Al-Obaidi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 10, Pages 0-0

PCR is a very sensitive technique that gained its significance through the high contribution on
a variety of bioscience fields. It is not surprising that the most cited scientific paper in
biosciences is related to the PCR programme. The optimisation of the PCR is very important
to achieve amplification with reliable results. Variables like Mg++ concentration, template
DNA dilution, annealing temperature, and primers' concentration were optimized using
classical and touchdown amplification methods. Other PCR methods like hot-start can
improve the quality and the quantity of the PCR yield. The utilization of mathematical and
statistical ways in designing a PCR programme like Taguchi or chessboarding methods can
efficiently enhance the PCR reaction. Also the usage of very pure reagents and the utilization
of a suitable kind of the Taq polymerase would highly improve future experiments. This work
was performed to find the optimal reaction conditions for the utilized standard PCR
programme.

Synthesis of N- Drug MaleamideChitosan Drug polymers

Firyal M.A; Saadoon A.A; Faris H.A.M

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 10, Pages 0-0

In this research a new prodrug chitosan maleamide derivatives were
synthesis via reaction of amino group of chitosan with maleic anhydride then
converted to its corresponding acyl chloride, of the chitosan maleate
derivative (A1) was reacted with different drug-NH2 (A2-A5) such as
procaine, cephalexin, amoxicillin, and 4-aminoantipyrine.which could have
potential use as a natural drug delivery system as a sustain release through
hydrolysis of amide attachment in different pH values such as in acidic or
basic medium. These derivatives were characterized by FTIR and 1H-NMR
spectroscopies. Controlled drug release was studied using UV. Spectroscopy
at λmax 270nm gave a constant swelling percentage were measured indicated
controlling release with other advantages and to minimize the toxicity and the
side effect. Thermal analysis such as TGA and DSC were studied indicated
the thermally stableprodrug polymers.

Epidemiological Study of Toxoplasmosis And Cytomegalovirus in Pregnant Women in Kerbala

Dr. Abdul-Rassol Kh. Saaeed; Karrar Jaber Abed-Nour

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 10, Pages 0-0

Objectives: Identifying the seroprevalence of acute anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-
CMV IgM and chronic IgG antibodies, the environmental and behavioral factors and
some socio demographic data and influencing CMV as co-factor to infected with
Toxoplasma gondii of the study sample.
Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study done on 240 pregnant women(13-43
years old). All the studied women were interviewed and blood samples were taken and
used Minividas technique for detect ion ant ibodies ( IgM and IgG) .
Results: The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody was (28.3%) for
chronic Toxoplasmosis (IgG),and (0.8%) for acute Toxoplasmosis (IgM).While results
for Cytomegalovirus (CMV)infection revealed that (92.08% ) positive for chronic
CMV (IgG) and (0.8%) positive for acute CMV(IgM) ,The peak age for acquisition of
the infection was (20-29 year old ) , There was a statistical significant association
between seroprevalence with cat exposure ,revealed this results significant association
between Toxoplasmosis and CMV infection and influencing CMV as co-factor to
infected with Toxoplasma gondii and proved this results significant association
between seroprevalence Toxoplasmosis and CMV infection with birth defect.

Effect of Olea Europea ( Olive oil ) on gentamicin induced hepatorenal toxicity in male rats

MOHAMMED TALAT ABBAS; ALI JELEEL ALI; IBRAHIM S.ABBAS; NEZAR METAB; HASSENEIN NOOR HADI; KASIM SAKRAN ABBAS; NEJDET ALI; Akram Abd AL- Hussein; Ayat Burhan; Tuka Hassan; Hiba Jalal

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 10, Pages 0-0

Gentamicin is aminoglycoside antibiotic commonly used for the treatment of
Gram-negative bacterial infection. In many cases, it has been the only effective
therapeutic drug against bacterial strains resistant to other antibiotics, but nephrotoxicity
and hepatotoxicity side effects limit its use. The aim of this study is to investigate the
protective effect of olive oil against gentamicin-induced hepatorenal toxicity in male
albino rats. In this study we used 24 wistar-albino rats and divided them into 4 equal
groups. Each experimental group consisted of six animals. group1,control they were
given normal saline only ,group2,gentamicin 100 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal
(IP),group3,olive oil 5 ml/kg/day (oral administation) ,group 4,gentamicin 100 mg/kg/day
intraperitoneal (IP) and olive oil 5 ml/kg/day (oral administration).Treatments were
administered once daily for 21 days. After 21 days, biochemical and histopathological
analysis were conducted to evaluate hepatoranal toxicity. Serum levels of urea,
creatinine, cholesterol,triglyceride,and activity of AST and ALT were measured.Animals
treated with gentamicin alone showed a significant increase in serum levels of these
markers.Treatment of rats with olive oil showed significant improvement in renal and
hepatic function , presumably as a result of decreased boichemical parameters associated
with gentamicin-induced hepatorenal toxicity.Histopathological examination of the rats
kidneys and liver confirmed these observations. Therefore olive oil may protect against
gentamicin-induced hepatorenal toxicity

Effect of water-soluble polymers and cosolvent on with candisartan– cyclodextrin complex solubility

MUDER AL HAYDER; ZAID AL OBIADY; HASSANAIN SHAKER MAHMOOD; HUSAM H. TIZKAM

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 10, Pages 0-0

Objective: The aim of the study is to find the candesartan celexitile (CC) solubility profile in the
presence of ß-cyclodexrin, poloxamer 188 and PEG 400 and the synergism effect of the cosolvency
of PEG 400 and the solubilizing effect of polymer poloxamer 188 on the drug cyclodextrin
complex.
Methods: An excess amount of (CC) was added to 10 mL aqueous solutions containing range
concentrations of either poloxamer 188 (0−0.4% w/v), β-CD (0−1%, w/v) or PEG (0−50%,v/v) at
25±1 ºC separately. The mixtures of aqueous solution were shaken in a thermostated water bath at
25°C ± 2 for 24 h to reach equilibrium. After that, all the suspensions were filtered through 0.22 μm
syringe filter and assayed for (CC) by UV Spectrophotometer at ʎ of 255 nm. Phase solubility
diagrams were plotted with (CC) solubility versus either ß-CD, poloxamer or PEG 400
concentration separately.
Results: It was found that the solubility of (CC) increased with the increasing concentration of
poloxamer188, PEG 400 or ß-CD. The phase solubility curves of (CC) in aqueous solution at 25°C
of ß-CD was of Higuchi’s AL-type confirming the formation of 1:1 complexes. The synergism
effect of poloxamer 188 and PEG 400 on the solubility of (CC) in the presence ß-CD was marked.
The values of stability constants (Ksp) of drug- ß-CD complexes and in the presence of PEG 400 or
poloxamer 188 with 0.4 mg / ml ß-CD were 59.7, 5.8 and 195.8 M-1 respectively. Addition of
poloxamer 188 to the drug-ß-CD complex increase the constant stability while addition of PEG 400
decrease the constant stability of the complex.
Conclusion: The solubility profile of (CC) in the presence of CD followed Higuchi equation
confirming the formation of 1:1complexes of AL-type. The synergism effect of the polymer on the
CC-CD complexes was significant.