ISSN: 7027-2221

Issue 9,

Issue 9


A Study of Ibn Hayan Honey Antioxidant Power

Sowdani; K.M

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 1-5

Reaching for a spoon of honey may do more than simply satisfy a sweet tooth; this paper
looks to compare the ferric reducing abilities of plasma (FRAP), for a 5 honey sampled from
around the world. FRAP was found to be as follows Australian Manulka+15 > Ibn Hayan II
> Ibn Hayan I > As-Sombola (KSA) > Ibn Hayan III (Iraq) > Essex-Bx (UK). The main
indicator of anti-oxidant power was the total polyphenol contents, and
hydroxymethylfulfural (HMF) to test the freshness of each sample sourced. All of the honey
studied had an additive impact of the levels of anti-oxidants in blood plasma. This plasma
was collected from 25 randomly selected healthy male volunteers from Baghdad, Iraq.
FRAP values were determined using different concentrations of honey samples and found to
have a positive correlation for all the honey included in this study. Interestingly, Ibn Hayan
(II) demonstrated a significant difference between experimentally determined and calculated
FRAP values. This may be attributed to the possibility of excess metallic or herbal
contaminants; this seems plausible given the relative purity of its Australian counterpart,
Manulka+15.

Lipase from S. aureus, Purification and Application of Three Characterizing Experiments

Amir Hani Raziq; Asia Fadhil Redha; Rana A. Hanoon

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 6-15

Many lipases have been extensively purified and characterized in terms of their activity and
stability profiles relative to pH, temperature, and their effects as metal ions and chelating agents.
One hundred samples were collected from different body sites and lesions of in and out patients
who attented Al-Kadhumiyah and Baghdad Teaching Hospitals. Identification of bacterial
isolates was performed by following the procedures mentioned elsewhere in the literature.
Purification steps of lipase included: extraction of the enzyme, precipitation of the enzyme by
ammonium sulphate, dialysis, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography.
The results revealed that the enzyme was purified with a yield of 0.3 and a fold of purification of
153.7. Also, the optimum temperature and pH for lipase stability were 40 0C and pH 8,
respectively, while the molecular weight of the enzyme was 110000 daltons.

Isolation, Characterization and Estimation of Ellagic Acid activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis Isolated from adult Periodontitis Patients in Kerbala City.

Alnasrawy; A.A; Y.A; Al-Khafaji; Altmimy; F.M; Alnasrawy; M.S

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 16-29

Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial infection affects the gingiva, periodontium connective
tissues and alveolar bone, results in alveolar bone resorption, ultimately, partially or
completely tooth loss, indeed, it may causes various serious systemic complications like
Diabetes Mellitus, Cardiovascular disorders, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Preeclampsia with low
birth weight and Orodigestive cancer mortality. Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered the
main, foremost and strongest periodontal pathogen. Isolation, characterization and monoplex
PCR of 16S rRNA and multiplex PCR of fimA geneotyping are the golden standard assays for
detection of P.gingivalis in adult periodontitis patients. In the present study,Pomegranate peel
Ethanol extract partially purified ellagic acid has an obvious effectiveness against oral
pathogens (P. gingivalis and S. mutans) in both growth inhibition zone on solid medium and
Percentage of growth reduction in a liquid medium in various concentrations with common
MIC 16mg/ml.

Identification of Lipase ProducersStaphylococcus aureus and Studyingthe Effects of Some Physicochemical Factors on Lipase Production

Amir Hani Raziq; Rana A. Hanoon; Asia Fadhil Redha

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 30-38

Lipases catalyze both the hydrolysis and synthesis of triacylglycerols. In addition to the
industrial uses of lipases, there is an evolving literature on their role as important microbial
virulence factors. One hundred samples were collected from different body sites and lesions of in
and out patients from both sexes who attended Al-Kadhimyia Teaching Hospital and Medical
Laboratories in Baghdad Teaching Hospital during the period from March, 2012 until
September, 2012 for the isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus. Identification of
bacterial isolates was performed according to the standard protocols. According to lipase activity
measurement, it was revealed that isolate no. 12 was the higher producer as compared to the
others and thus it was selected for further work.The results demonstrated that the best lipase
production was in the alkaline pH (8) and at temperature of 30oC. It is also shown that the
addition of 0.001M BaCl2 and 2mM KCl to the culture media has dramatically increased lipase
activity. Conversely, the addition of 10mM NaCl, 0.001M FeSO4.7H2O, and 2M NaF has caused
significant reduction in lipase activity.

Spectrofluorimetry - Cloud point extraction for the determination of cadmium and lead using Furosemide as a complexing agent

Kasim H.Kadhim; Abbas N.Alshirifi; Ahmed S. Abbas

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 39-49

In this paper , describes a separation and Preconcentration method for the determination of cadmium(II) and lead (II) by spectrofluorimetric method after complexation with the Furosemide drug as a reagent using Triton X-114 as surfactant and quantitatively extracted into a small volume of the surfactant-rich phase after centrifugation. The optimum conditions, such as pH, concentration of reagent (drug) and surfactant (TritonX-114) , equilibration temperature and time on the cloud point extraction, were studied and optimized on the extraction efficiency. In this method limits of detection and quantification LOD and LOQ of Cd and Pb ion were (0.321,0.095) and (0.974,0.288) ng/mL respectively, and a linear calibration range of ( 6.75-50) ng/mL for Cd and (1.25-15) ng/mL for Pb . The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of Cd(II) ion , Pb(II) ion in milk samples with satisfactory results .

Detection of Aflatoxins Present in Some Types of Nuts are Available In Local Markets

S. J; Mohammed; Abu-Almaaly; R. A

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 50-60

Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins and secondary metabolites of various species of
Aspergillus. These are various forms of aflatoxins. Aflatoxins cause important health
problems and have a high potential effect on live cancer. Many studies have been conducted
during last three decades about contamination of Nuts by aflatoxins. The aim of this work
was to investigate the contamination levels of nuts used by confectionaries in Baghdad. A
total of fifteen samples including (3Almonds, 3Pistachio, 3Hazelnut , 3Peanuts and 3Walnut
) were collected from local market in Baghdad city. ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent
assays) technique was employed for screening of total aflatoxins in nuts. The contamination
rate was higher than 10 ppb was observed in (one sample of Almonds, two samples of
hazelnut, and in two samples of Walnuts). The result of tested samples showed that the rate
of contamination of hazelnut is higher than other tested samples.

Synthises and characterization of New fructosyl N-ampicillin derivative as possible prodrug

Maha K. Mahmmod

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 61-69

“Prodrugs Approach” is a versatile approach in solving the problems associated with drug
molecules. Ampicillin drug has some side effects i.e. absorption, toxicity, distribution,
instability, formulation etc. These side effects can be reduced by “Prodrugs Approach”. In the
present research work a new carbohydrate derivative of N-ampicillin was prepared by
reacting the appropriate 1-chloro-diacetone fructose with protected ampicillin anhydrous to
obtain a new ampicillin amino derivative as possible prodrug , that has more water–solubility
than parent drug make to reduce the dose given to patient and reduced the dugs side effect .
The synthesized compounds were identified using U.V, FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectra and it
was equal to expected. The synthesized compound was tested for their antifungal and
antibacterial activities in vitro. However, detailed kinetic studies of chemical and potential
enzyme hydrolysis still remain to be done.

Detection of specific antibodies of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from children by using Eliza test

Afaf Abdul-Rahman Yousif; Dawmy; Faten A. A. Al

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 70-77

This study comprises two parts: part one was conducted to isolate E.coli O157: H7 from
children in Pediatric Hospital of Karballa city. The bacteria were identified by bacteriological,
biochemical and serological methods.( 14 )isolates of E.coli O157:H7 isolated from children
with diarrhea (230) and children had urinary tract infection(200) were isolated.
Part two of the study was included detection of antibodies against E.coli O157:H7 somatic
(inactivated bacterium by heating) and flagellar (inactivated bacterium by formaldehyde)
antigens in rabbits by using ELISA test. Twelve adult healthy rabbits were divided randomly
for three equal groups A, B and C used for immunization study. All rabbits had negative fecal
bacteriological culture of E.coli O157:H7 and serum was collected before immunization.
Serum antibodies titers were estimated by using ELISA and tube agglutination test pre and
post each immunization. No antibody titers were detected Pre immunization in all rabbits.
Elisa test revealed that the group (A) showed a significant variation between the value of
antibody titers in the 2nd week and 4th week post immunization. Also in group (B) there was
a significant variations between the antibody titers in the 2th week and 4th week post
immunization. Group (A) revealed low significant (p ≤ 0.05) antibody titers in serum
(0.37±0.02) in comparison with group(B) which exhibited antibody titers in serum
(0.44±0.04). No antibody titers was detected in rabbits of the control group (C) during the
same weeks intervals. Antibody titers were estimated by tube agglutination test in immunized
groups revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) antibody titers in serum (440±120) in group A in
comparison with group-B which exhibited antibody titers in serum (560±80).Our study
concluded the importance of detection Escherichia coli O157:H7 in children and that enzymelinked
immunosorbent posses the ability for detection antibodies against this bacteria.

Compliance behaviors among patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy in Holy Kerbala / Iraq

H. A; Athbi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 78-90

Adherence to dialysis sessions attendance, fluid and dietary restriction, and medication
recommendations are essential for adequate management of hemodialysis patients. This will
help nurses staffs to identify gaps in their health education of patients on haemodialysis. The
ultimate goal is to improve patients’ adherence to haemodialysis, therefore effective
management of end stage renal failure population, consequently their quality of life. This
study designed to identify compliance behavior of hemodialysis treatment, medication, fluid
and diet restriction among patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy. A descriptive study was
carried out at hemodialysis unit in holy kerbala / Iraq, from the period of March, 2014 to
October, 2014. A purposive sample of 50 patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy were
selected randomly in AL-Husien medical city, and they were invited to be enrolled in the
study after taking their consent. The data were collected by means of direct interview
technique with the patients, through the use of end stage renal disease-adherence
questionnaire (ESRD-AQ). A descriptive statistical analysis procedures were used for the
data analysis. The results revealed that most of the study sample was female, within age
group more than 60 years old, illiterate, married, housewifes, and most of them were
suffering from hypertension. In addition, the majority of them were undergoing hemodialysis
treatment not more than five years, and received three dialysis sessions with three hours for
each session per week. There are a deficit in compliance behaviors toward hemodialysis
attendance, medications, fluid restrictions, and dietary restrictions. The study recommended
to educate patients with family involvement about the importance of adherence to
hemodialysis therapy, and future studies should be done to identify factors that effecting
compliance behavior among hemodialysis patients in holy kerbala.

Formulation of telmisartan microsponge tablets and In-Vitro evaluation of dissolution profile

Muder AL Haydar

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 91-104

Objective: The aim of this study is to formulate microsponge of telmisartan as a tablet dosage form
and evaluate the release profile in comparing with Micardis® the marketed telmisartan..
Methods: Temisartan microsponge was prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method by
using polymers either Eudragite E or eudragite L in organic solution as internal phase and aqueous
solution of polyvinyl povidone as external phase. Five formulations of microsponge temisartan
tablet were prepared including formulation 3 which contains pure telmisartan by direct compression
method. All formulations were evaluated for flowability characteristic and release profile in
comparison with marketed tablet Micardis®.
Results: Telmisartan microsponge was successfully formulated without any interaction or in
compatibility with Eudragite polymer. The flow properties of the microsponge powder were with
acceptable limit. The wetting and disintegration time of F1, F2, F4 and F5 in microsponge system
were decrease in comparison to the F3 which used plain telmisartan and Micardis® a conventional
tablet. The superdisintegrants crospovidone 5% which represented in formula F4 and F5 gave the
rapid disintegration time compared to the other formulas. The dissolution profile of the temisartan
for all formulation and comparing to the Micardis tablet indicated the improvement of the
dissolution rate by using microsponge system.
Conclusion: It was indicated that telmisartan microsponge was successfully formulated and their
tablet formulations proved to show better release profile in all aspects as compared to marketed
(Micardis®) tablet. Using of different super disintegrates have significant effect on wetting and
disintegration time of telmisartan tablet.

Effects of formulation variables on the Candesartan cilexitil nanoparticles properties using poloxamer 188

Alaa Mohamed Baqer; Mowafaq Mohammed Ghareeb; Muder AL Haydar

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 105-113

Candesartan celexitil (CC), a non-peptide angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, is
used in the treatment of hypertension. It has low solubility with low bioavailability thus
nanoparticles approach is one of the recently technique used to enhance the solubility of
drugs. The aim of this study is to improve the solubility of CC by preparing nanoparticles.
Seven formulas of nanoparticles were prepared by antisolvent precipitation method utilizing
poloxamer 188 as polymer. Three of them at different drugs: polymer ratio and another three
different solvent: anti solvent ratios. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized regarding
the particle size by nano laser particle size analyzer, saturated solubility, and thermal analysis
by DSC. The prepared nanoparticle reveals that all formulas produce nanoparticle in range of
70.6 - 1119 nm. Formula (F2) which utilizes PXM as polymer at polymer: drug ratio of (1:1)
and solvent: antisolvent ratio of (1:10) was considered as the best formula which shows good
evaluation parameters in addition to increment in solubility 10.54 times than that of pure
drug. The thermal analysis of nanoparticle of the selected formula (F2) shows reducing of
intensity of endothermic peak of the drug indicating reduced crystallinity of candesartan
cilexetil. Finally it could be concluded that the selected formula is promising for preparation
of candesartan cilexetil nanoparticles with improved solubility.

Formulation and evaluation of clarithromycim oral microspong

Jenan m. Mohsin al mosawi; laith hamza samein; alaa abdul- razzaq

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 114-123

Clarithromycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and extensively absorbed orally. It is be used in the
eradication of H. Pylori infection combined with an acid suppressing agent. The purpose of this study
was to develop controlled release clarithromycin floating micro sponges for gastro retentive drug
delivery. The micro sponge’s formulations were prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion
method employing eudragit RS 100 as a polymer and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) as a surfactant.
The compatibility of the drug with formulation components was established by Fourier
Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The prepared microsponge were evaluated for angle
of repose, Carr's Index ,particle size, floating time production yield, drug loading efficiency of
micro sponges. Shape and surface morphology of the micro sponges were been examined using
scanning electron microscopy. formulation F5 with drug to polymer ratio 8:1,10 ml of internal
phase volume (ethanol: dichloromethane) and 0.25%pva solution was the best formula
showing the highest degree of sustained release that is 79.59% at the end of 12 hours with
floating time for 12 hr. Eudragit RS 100 could control drug release in stomach.

Investigation the Factors Affecting on Gatifloxacin Eye Drop Stability

Saba Abdulhadee Jabir

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 124-137

This research included the study of different factors that may effect on gatifloxacin stability
(anew quinolone synthetic antibacterial agent) in its aqueous solution in order to develop and
optimize the best delivary of the drug to the eye (as eye drop) with maximum local
concentration and minimum systemic absorption and toxicity.Different formulas of
gatifloxacin solution for ophthalmic use (0.3%)w/v were prepared in citrate,
acetate,citrate/phosphate and phosphate buffers,their tonicity adjusted with suitable quantity
of sodium chloride.The effect of different factors that might affectthe stability of gatifloxacin
in its prepared ophthalmic solution was studied and determined spectrophotometrically at 287
nm. The results showed that The use of disodium edetate as asequestering agent gave more
stable formula and gatifloxacin undergoes hydrolysis at low pH with optimum stability at pH
6.0, which is the most suitable pH for this ophthalmic solution. The type of buffer
significantlyaffects on the rate of hydrolysis of gatifloxacinspecially at low pH and optimum
stability was obtained by using phosphate buffer. The concentration of phosphate buffer had a
significant effect on the hydrolysis of gatifloxacin and the rate of hydrolysis increased as the
concentration buffer increased. Ionic strength affects the hydrolysis rate of gatifloxacin and
the hydrolysis increased as the ionic strength increased. Light had a significant effect on the
rate of hydrolysis of the drug and the drug losses 10% of its potency after 10 monthes of light
exposure at room temperature. The prepared formula J ( gatifloxacin 0.3% in 0.1M
phosphate buffer with sodium chloride 0.26% , xanthan gum 0.2% and disodium
edetate 0.01%) is thebest stable one and had no irritation on the eye of experimental animals,
and it passes successfully quality control tests including: drug content, pH, clarity and sterility
test and comply with united state pharmacopoeia for ophthalmic solutions.

Determination of Glimepiride, Amlodipine and Nitrofurantoin by Reversed phase - High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP- HPLC Technique)

H. H; Kharnoob; I. T; Hanoon

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 138-144

The drugs were studied in this research are Glimepiride( GLM) is insulin independent and
glucose reduction level in blood of human body ,Amlodipine (AML)is lowering blood
pressure and Nitrofurantoin( NTF) is used to treat urinary tract infection. In spite of many
analytical techniques were used to determine these drugs. Modified HPLC was used in
present work ,this analytical technique is rapid, accurate, sensitive and applied for
determination of drug in its formulations. Analytical parameters for determination of drugs
GLM, AML and NTF by RP-HPLC at UV detector were as following ; mobile phas
acetonitrile:water:ethanolsodiumphalate(60:20:20),cetonitrile:water:triethyamine(45:45:10),
acetonitrile:buffer solution(30:70),flow rate (1.5,1.5,1.0) ml/minute, wave length
(230,245,254) nm, retention time (8.169,6.771,4.413) minutes ,stationary phase C18 column,
linear range 10-50, 2-10,5-25 μg/ml, limit of detection (2.8×10-5 ),(2.9×10-3),(9.3×10-3)
μg/ml, standard deviation (0.054,1.8439,0.0625) and the percentage of recovery
(100.06%,100.9%,100.8%) respectively.

Preparation of Nanohybrid antifungal from Nystatin and determination its inhibitory efficiency against Candida spp.

Zahraa Shakir Mahmod; Ali Abdul Kadhim Al-Ghanimi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 145-165

A nanohybrid antifungal Nys-ZnO was prepared using sol-gel ion exchange method between
the antifungal Nystatin (Nys) and Zinc Oxide. The new nanoantifungal was identified. FT-IR
spectroscopy revealed the appearance of new groups in the Nys-ZnO spectrum which indicates the
formation of new compound. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectrum revealed the appearance of
new diffraction planes in the nanohybrid antifungal spectrum in compare with the spectrum of zinc
oxide. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed the presence of some change in the Nys-ZnO
surface. The two and three dimensional image of the above compound in atomic force microscope
confirmed the formation of new antifungal with nanodimensions. The antimicrobial activity of the
nanohybrid antifungal was studied against 23 isolates of Candida. Results showed that highest
inhibition was obtained against isolate Candida tropicalis 4 with avarege inhibition zone of 24.08
mm .

Determination of Homatropine Methylbromide Drug by Using of Manufactured Selective Membrane Electrodes

Dr.Imad Tarek Hanoon; Ahmed Kareem Abas Hasan

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 157-165

An accurate,sensitive, selective and reproducible method for quantification of
Homatropine methylbromide in pharmaceutical has been developed. This method is based
on construction of selective liquid membrane electrodes using phosphomolybdic acid
(PMA) as an active material and di-n-butylphthalate(DBPH) as a plasticizer and PVC as
matrix . The results showed that the liner concentration is 10⁻1 - 10-5 M. for electrod .
Correlation coefficient 0.991, detection limit is 2.5 × 10-8μg.ml-1 optimum pH range
2.4-3.6, and life time is 28 days and recovery not less than 99% .
This method was successfully applied for the determination of Homatropine methylbromide
in Riabasam tablet is not less than 99% and its (105.57%).