ISSN: 7027-2221

Volume 5, Issue 8

Volume 5, Issue 8, Spring 2014, Page 1-134


Molecular docking of novel, short peptide from Flammulina velutipes with influenza drug targets in comparison with anti-influenza drugs amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir

Abo Almaali. H. M

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 8, Pages 1-10

Influenza viruses known to cause widespread morbidity and mortality, and distributed throughout several parts of the world, producing a serious public health threat, and may result in a pandemic. The antimicrobial peptides known to have broad spectrum activity and considered a promising agents in microbial inhibition and killing. So that this study was done to find the probable scope of anti-influenza activity of short peptide FV16 (KKVGTSKVVAKTVTKK) a sixteen amino acids short peptide inspired from the bacteria F. velutipes. Hex 8.0.0 software was used to find the probable binding positions and binding strength of FV16 with particular viral targets. This study was resulted in a high degree of binding strength of FV16 with the most studied influenza targets in comparison with the binding strength of other approved anti-influenza drugs (amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir), the influenza drug targets were neuraminidase, hemagglutinin, M1 and M2 proteins. Furthermore, FV16 binding positions on each particular viral targets derived from particular strain have its own unique position, this may give it the property of multi-strain binding agent to expand its spectrum against influenza virus strains. In conclusion, FV16 may have the potential to be an anti-influenza agent, and may bind to future generated strains. Future in vitro studies needed to prove this hypothesis.

Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotyping in adult periodontitis population in Kerbala city

Alnasrawy; A.A; Alsalihi; A.A; Abo Almaali; H.M; Y.A; Al-Khafaji

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 8, Pages 11-20

Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial infection affects the gingiva, periodontium connective tissues and alveolar bone, results in alveolar bone resorption ultimately, tooth loss, indeed, it may causes various serious systemic complications like diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, preeclampsia with low birth weight and orodigestive cancer mortality. Numerous bacteria are associated with periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered the main, foremost and strongest periodontal pathogen involved in periodontal diseases. Fimbriae that are encoded by fimA gene have been considered the main and the first virulence factor of this bacterium involved in adhesion, colonization, invasion, establishment and persistence within the host. This study was conducted from September, 2013 to July, 2014 to investigate the prevalence of P. gingivalis throughout monoplex PCR of 16S rRNA and multiplex PCR of fimA genes amplification in adult periodontitis population in kerbala city. Specific virulent clones of P. gingivalis may present in chronic and/or aggressive periodontitis. Some variations are found in the distribution of P. gingivalis fimA genotypes among periodontitis patients and the greater prevalence of fimA genotypes (II, IV) followed by (III, Ib) in adults with chronic periodontitis.

Association of Proinflammatory Cytokines (Interleukin 6 and Interleuken 8) with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 In Baghdad Population

Najwa Sh. Ahmed; Yasameen Ali Hadi; Saad M. Nada; Waleed Hameed Yousif; May Ridha Jaafar

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 8, Pages 21-25

Patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from hyperglycemia do not have the ability to use the insulin they produce, and increased incidence of infections, and the aim of the current study is to investigate correlation proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and interleukin-8) with type 2 diabetes mellitus. in this study, were collected (100) sample of serum and a representative of the 80 samples of type 2 diabetes and 40 samples from healthy controls of Endocrinology, Diabetes Center at Kindi Hospital, and then measure the concentration of IL6, IL8 using enzymatic and colorimetric methods. This study has shown that there was no significant difference in the production of IL8 for diabetes and amounted to about (0.543 ± 0.16) compared with healthy (0.106 ± 0.01), while production showed significant difference for IL6 production reached (1.056 ± 0.18) compared with healthy (1.969 ± 0.19) and The conclusion Search found high values of IL 6 in type 2 diabetes compared with healthy.

In silico Identification to Potential Drug siRNA Using Statistical Methods in Helicobacter pylori

Z. H; Al Rikabi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 8, Pages 26-37

Helicobacter pylori a causative influence risk of carcinogenesis which has developed resistance to drugs. The present study was carried out to identify potential drug targets in H. pylori by design of potent siRNA. To reach the goal, the collection essential gene for H. pylori and host from DEG, then a variety of bioinformatics databases studying Blastp Database of essential genes, Blastp from NCBI and KEGG, for selection non-homologous genes, then the software OligoWalk to design siRNA. The study concluded to get seven (7) essential membrane protein of H. pylori to become drug target, then subjected to find siRNA which are shorter than 21 nt about 2423 siRNA, 110 siRNA (Effective siRNA rules), 56 siRNA (ratio GC (35%-60%)), 50 siRNA (Desired position), 30 siRNA (Probability range between (0.70-0.91)), 20 siRNA (Secondary structures), 8 siRNA (Drug target), this steps respectively. Conclusion: Eight (8) siRNA which could use as potential drug target for resistant of Helicobacter pylori 26695.

Gastroprotective activity of alpha-pinene in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats

Al-Juhaishi; A. M

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 8, Pages 38-46

Gastric ulcer is the most common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, it occurs mainly in the stomach. α-pinene is a bicyclic terpene and its oil extracted from Lamiaceae, conifers, citrus and other plants. It has broad pharmacological activities. This study was done to assess the anti-ulcer activity of α-pinene against gastric ulcer in rat. This study included 6 groups with 6 rats in each group. Group 1 is healthy group and group 2 is control group (untreated ulcer group). Group 3 (positive group) was orally pretreated with 20 mg/kg ranitidine. Groups 4, 5, and 6 (experimental groups) were orally pre-treated with α-pinene at 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg doses, respectively. Result of this study appeared that the ulcer control group showed severe mucosal injury, while pre-treatment with α-pinene resulted in significantly (P<0.05) protection of gastric mucosal injury, good neutralizing properties, and increase in mucus production in comparison to ranitidine pretreated and ulcer control groups. In conclusions, the present results suggest that α-pinene exhibit an anti-ulcer activity against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

Effect of nystatin drug on the level of immunoglobulin's in children with autism

A. F; Alhaidary; Mousa; R.F

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 8, Pages 47-55

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of heterogeneous, behaviorally defined disorders characterized by disturbances in both verbal and non-verbal communication, language, imagination, and social interaction, often with repetitive and stereotyped behavior . The aim of this study is to achieve serum level of immunoglobulin IgE near normal value in children with autism after nystatin administration . This study was performed on 30 child with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that are go to psychiatric clinic at Al – Hussain teaching Hospital/kerbala –Iraq. The study revealed significant different on a level of immunoglobulins in autism spectrum disorders as compared with control group .This study indicate the reduction in level of IgG,IgA,IgM,IgE in autism child when compared with the same immunoglobulins in control group ,also this study showed an increase in the level of IgE level (p=0.01) in patient with autism and discus the relationship between it and Candida Albecan fungi for this reason the study treated this fungi by using anti fungi drug (nystatin) ,that lead to reduce the level of IgE in patient to be near the value in control group . The last result improve behavior of autism after treatment with nystatin .

Study Some of Biochemical Changes in Sera of Reaven's Syndrome Patient,s and it, s relationship with Diabetes Mellitus type II

Mousa; R.F

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 8, Pages 56-63

Aim of this study to investigate the correlation of Reaven's Syndrome with the number and type of Diabetes Mellitus in both males and females diagnostic criteria in Iraqi patients /Babylon city .This study involved 85 diabetic patients(45 males and 40 females) with age (46-52 year) have a history of diabetes for 10 years and 80 healthy controls (40 males and 40 females) were randomly selected and they were examined for dyslipidaemia and Reaven's factors. Consulting the outpatient clinic at Merjan Teaching Hospital/Babylon city during May –July 2014 . For all patients anthropometric measures were obtained and fasting blood samples were taken for determination of blood glucose, lipid profile and C reactive protein ( CRP) level.Reaven's syndrome was diagnosed in all the samples under this research. The level of CRP was found to be significantly increased with increasing number of components of Reaven's syndrome(3.21 mg/dl) . While the lowest value of (0.13 mg/dl) was found in people with absent components of Reaven's syndrome (control). A significant positive correlation was observed between CRP, fast blood sugar (FBG) and triglycerides(TG)(3.21mg/dl ,120.7 mg/dl, and 189.14 mg/dl ,respectively, P<0.001) in patient with diabetic mellitus and a negative correlation with high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol )(25.26 mg/dl, p=0.058) in the same time .

Spectrophotometric assay for determination of sulfamethoxazole in pharmaceutical preparations via diazotization coupling reaction with catechol

Mohammed.J.Hamzah

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 8, Pages 64-75

A simple, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of sulfamethoxazole is developed. The method is based on diazotization reaction of sulfamethoxazole and coupling with catechol in alkaline medium to form an orange-reddish water soluble azo dye, that has a maximum absorption at 495nm. A graph of absorbance versus concentration shows that Beer law is obeyed in the range of 0.5-5ppm of sulfamethoxazole in a final volume 25ml with a molar absorptivity of 3.03x104l.mol-1.cm-1, a sandal sensitivity of 8.32x10-6μg.cm-2, a relative error of 0.18-0.78% and a relative standard deviation of 0.32-0.65%, depending on the concentration. The optimum conditions for full color development were optimized and the proposed method was applied satisfactorily to pharmaceutical preparations containing sulfamethoxazole. Statistical treatments of the obtained results was carried out using F-test and t-test, the results shows there are no significant differences between the proposed method and Bratton-Marshall method, therefore the developed method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of sulfamethoxazole in different pharmaceutical preparations.

Synthesis and Characterization of New Schiff Bases Linked to Sulfonamido Succinimide Moiety with biological Activity

Ahlam Marouf Al-Azzawi; Ali Abdul Kareem Raheem

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 8, Pages 76-84

October Some new Schiff bases linked to sulfonamido succinimidi moiety have been synthesized via multistep synthesis. The first step involved reaction of succinic anhydride with aniline producing N-phenyl succinamic acid which was subsequently dehydrated to the corresponding N-phenyl succinimide via treatment with acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate. The synthesized imide was treated with chlorosulfonic acid in the third step producing 4-(N-succinimidyl)phenyl sulfonyl chloride which on amination with hydrazine hydrate in the fourth step afforded 4-(N-succinimdyl)phenyl sulfonyl hydrazine and this in turn when introduced in condensation reaction with various aromatic aldehydes and ketones afforded the target new Schiff bases. Structures of the prepared compounds were elucidated on the basis of FTIR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectral data which agreed with the proposed structures. The newly synthesized compounds are expected to have biological activity since they are built from biologically active components including succinimide, sulfonamide and Schiff base.

The occurrence of food allergy in Children and Adults in Kerbala City

Al-jebori. A. A

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 8, Pages 85-90

Objective:Food allergies are a public health concern , People with food allergies are two to four times more likely to have asthma or other allergic conditions than those without food allergies.The prevalence of food allergies increased 18% during 1997–2007,We investigate the occurrence of food allergies in Children and adults in Al-Hussein Medical City. A total number of 60 Iraqi patients with symptoms of food allergy were included in the present study . The study was carried out during the period from October, 2013 May, 2014. Blood samples and laboratory investigation was done in teaching Laboratory of AL – Hussein Medical City to detect antibodies type IgE for food allergens( egg white ,egg yolk, cow's milk ,casein, bovine serum albumin ,wheat flour ,soybean, baker's yeast ,peanut ,hazelnut ,almond, orange, apple, banana , tomato ,carrot , celery ,onion ,mutton /lamb ,mustard ,shrimp ,cod fish,chicken meat , mango ,chocolate)using EUROLINE test kit. The Present study illustrated that the food allergy prevalence(measured by specific IgE concentration) in men is 65% and 35% in women, The Rate of occurrence of food allergy in children is (66.7%) while in adults is (33.3%) . Children and adults may be allergic to more than one food stuff. Banana, peanut and white egg recorded high rate of occurrence in food allergy ,lower rate occur in mango, chicken meat ,mutton /lamb. but no recorded allergy to onion and cod fish. Finally this study record that the highest concentration of specific IgE antibodies occur in response to shrimp and white egg. The present study demonstrated high prevalence of food allergy in male compared with female,and high frequency of food allergy in children compared with adults. There's no significant between children and adults in occurrence of food allergy for more than one food allergens.there for should be avoided some type of food which stimulate the immune system.

Activity of Lactate dehydrogenase in urine of spontaneous aborted women

Ferah Ghali Al-Salihi; a Ismail Yaseen; Asra; Tagreed AbdalhameedAlsaadon

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 8, Pages 91-97

The present study was designed to estimate the activity of lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH ) in the urine of spontaneous aborted women and to evaluate the effect of some accompanied diseases such as; chronic hypertension and Toxoplasma Gondii infection on LDH activity . The comparison of 20 spontaneous aborted women was done with control groups of 20 healthy pregnant and 20 age-matched non-pregnant women. The results of this study showed a significant increase (p value=0.03 ) in urine LDH activity of aborted women compared with control groups. A significant increase (p=0.001) was recorded as well in LDH activity of aborted women with age of 30-45 years compared to 15-29 years group. The present study also revealed a significant increase (p=0.001) in LDH activity of aborted women accompanied with chronic hypertension and Toxoplasma Gondii infection.

A comparative study on the fertility effects of phytochemical compounds isolated from the fruits of Euterpe Oleracea L. and Lycium Barbarum L. with Tadalafil drug on male rats

Alaa A. Abdulrasool; Zena M. Fahmi; Huda F. Hasan

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 8, Pages 98-109

This study was implemented to investigate the effect of Euterpe. Oleracea L. anthocyanin (EOA) and L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on male fertility in comparison with tadalafil. Anthrocyanin was obtained from the crude extract of E. oleracea using solid phase extraction (SPE). polysaccharides were isolated from the crude extract of Lycium barbarum L. using chemical methods. Twenty eight adult male rats were divided into four equal groups; First group (T1), was treated with 80 mg/kg (EOA). Second group (T2), was treated with 100 mg/kg (LBP), third group (T3), was treated with 1.8mg/kg Tadalafil drug. The last group (T4) was treated with distilled water and was considered as control group. Results of sperm (count, motility, and viability), testosterone level and fertility index of T1,T2 and T3 groups showed significant increase as compared with (T4). The (T2) was showed a significant decrease in the abnormality percentage and significant increase in testes weight and Gonadosomatic index as compared with (T4). The (T1) showed a significant reduction of the body, testes weight and gonadosomatic index as compared with (T4). The (T3) showed significant increase of the body, testes weight and gonadosomatic index as compared with (T4). Histological results of the testis in (T1) showed the somniferous tubules were filled with spermatid and mature spermatozoa, while (T2) had hyperplasia in few somniferous tubules in the primary spermatocytes and the somniferous tubules lumen was filled with mature spermatozoa, while (T3) revealed a clear congestion of blood vessels and odema in the interstitial tissue. In this study concluded the Polysaccharides of L. barbarum fruits and anthocyanins of E. oleracea fruit can be considered as fertility-facilitating agents and can reduce the sperm deformities.

Nurses` Knowledge about Universal Precautions in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Pediatric Teaching Hospitals in Baghdad City: Descriptive Study

Shauq; A. H; Obaid; K. B; Zaid W; Summer K; Ulaa N; Sabeh O; Rihab M; Amna M

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 8, Pages 110-123

Infections acquired in the hospital are important causes of morbidity and mortality in high-risk neonates who receive intensive care. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC developed a set of protocols and guidelines known as universal precautions (UPs) that apply to care of all patients in all healthcare settings, regardless of the suspected or confirmed presence of an infectious agent that may prevent and control infection transmission for neonates and health care workers. To assess the level of nurses` knowledge about universal precautions in the NICU, and find out some relations between nurses` knowledge and their demographic data. a descriptive study was conducted from 1 November 2010 to 1 April 2011. The sample consisted of all nurses who were working at the NICU of pediatric teaching hospitals in Baghdad city 35 nurses. A questionnaire was prepared based on the WHO and CDC guidelines on UPs and was pre-tested before finalization. Data has collected through the application of questionnaire and interview techniques. The results revealed that nurses` knowledge about general information, personnel protective equipment (PPE), soiled patient-care equipment, needles and other sharps, and patient placement (isolation) was good, while about hand hygiene, patient resuscitation, and respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette was accepted. Unfortunately their knowledge about recapping the used needles and wearing surgical mask >3 feet to prevent contamination was poor. In general, of the total sample, (71.4 %) has accepted level of knowledge while (28.6 %) has good knowledge regarding all aspect of universal precautions. most of the participants have accepted level of knowledge regarding all aspects of universal precautions. They have poor knowledge regarding recapping the used needles and regarding wear the surgical mask >3 feet to prevent droplet transmission. The study recommends that the nurses should be modifying and reinforcing their knowledge about universal precautions by continues educational programs and raises their awareness. Encourage transmission barriers use (hand hygiene, personal protective equipment), and especially the most important and simple procedures to reduce infection transmission “hand hygiene”.

CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF TRAMADOL ANALGESIC EFFECT IN COMPARISON TO COMBINATION OF PARACETAMOL AND CHLORZOXAZONE IN ACUTE NEUROPATHIC PAIN IN IRAQI PATIENTS

Alaa A. Ali

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 8, Pages 124-134

Neuropathic pain (NP) is pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system. Many common diseases, injuries, and interventions cause NP by producing lesions in somatosensory pathways in the peripheral or central nervous system. Its treatment is complex with often inadequate response to treatment. Tramadol has been considered as the analgesic of choice for patients in moderate to severe pain and used as a control treatment. Combination of the skeletal muscle relaxant chlorzoxazone and the non-opioid analgesic paracetamol was investigated for their efficacy of blocking NP in comparison with the control treatment. Forty eight patients with age range 20-40 years old (27 males and 21 females) who were treated for acute neuropathic pain in Dijlah rehabilitation hospital were involved. The efficacy of treatment was assessed using 0-10 numeric pain scale. The safety issue of drugs was assessed by investigating liver function test, serum creatinine and hematological parameters. The results revealed that there is no statistical difference (p≥ 0.05) in pain treatment efficacy between the investigated treatment and the control group. The safety issue showed that there is no statistical difference (p≥ 0.05) between the measurement of laboratory data before and after time schedule of the treatment. It is concluded that chlorzoxazone / paracetamol combination therapy is an effective and safe treatment for neuropathic pain comparable to tramadol.