ISSN: 7027-2221

Issue 7,

Issue 7


Identification of granulopoiesis lineage in bone marrow of adult male albino rat “Rattus norvegious

Muntadhur Muhammad Cani Al-Tae; Noumaan S.M. AlSamarrae

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 1-11

Bone marrow becomes increasly important hematopoietic tissue. The stroma of the bone marrow is composed of hematopoietic cords, sinusoids, and collagen fibers. The earliest recognizable of granulocytic lineage is the myeloblast. Myeloblast is an oval cell and its chromatin distributed within the nucleus. The promelocyte is sometime slightly larger that its progenitor. Its cytoplasm contains a variable number of large coarse granules. The metamelocytes become smaller and their nucleus attains a definitive indentation. The band cell has a nuclear indentation with concentrate and course chromatin. The segmented cells are characterized by a multilobulated nucleus showing a densely packed chromatin with some clumping.

Preparation and characterization of some new heterocyclic compounds with evaluating of its biological activity

Ibtisam K. Jassim; Suraa Reaad; Suhad Kh.Shubber; Wissam K. Jassim

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 12-20

New compounds of 2-amino 6-bromo benzothiazole [2], 2-( substituted benzylidene)-6 -bromobenzothiazole [3a-e], 2-( p-N,N-dimethylamino phenyl)- 2-yl)-tetrazolo)-6-bromobenzothiazole[4],- 2-(p-N,N-dimethylaminophenyl)-)– (4'-oxo-1̀,3̀-thiazolidin-2-yl)6-bromobenzothiazole[5], 2-(p-N,N-dimethylaminophenyl)-2-yl)– 2,3-dihydro-1,3-oxazpine-4,7-dione)-6-bromobenzothiazole[6], -2-( p-N,N-dimethylamino phenyl)- 2-yl) 2,3-dihydro-1,3-oxazpine-4,7-dione)-6-bromobenzothiazole[7], and 2-( p-N,N-dimethylamino phenyl) imidazolidine-4-one)- 6-bromo benzothiazole[8] have been synthesized. The structures of these compounds were identified by FT-IR,H-NMR,Uv spectra and checked by TLC. Some of these compounds were tested against bacteria (Escherchia coli and Staphococcus aureus ).

Synthesis and Biological testing of new 1,3- oxazepine derivatives of pharmaceutical interest

Khalid.M .Mohamad Al-janaby; Ali.I.Mustafa.AL-Jobory

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 21-30

Some derivatives of 1,3 oxazepine – Schiff bases have been synthesized by the reaction of some aromatic aldehydes with N-phenyl azo aniline to synthesis of the compounds ,2-(p-phenyl azo)-1,4-phenylene aniline(1-6) ,and these compounds (1-6) were reacted with phthalic anhydride to obtain derivatives of 1,3- oxazapine. The chemical structures of the products were characterized by (IR ,and 1H NMR) and biological activity for some of these compounds were studied against three kinds of bacteria

Synthesis and Identification of some 1,3-oxazepine derivatives containing p-methoxy phenyl and studying their anti bacterial activity

Bushra A.Kherallah

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 31-41

This search includes preparation p-methoxy benzoyl hydrazine (II2) from the reaction between p-methoxy ethyl benzoate (I1) with hydrazine haydrate with the existence of ethanol absolute , then they were converted to hydrazine derivatives with different substituents (III3-6) through the reaction with aromatic benzaldehyde with out using a solvent under thermal fussion . Compounds of 1,3-oxazepine-4,7-dione (IV7-10) have also been prepared by ring closer reaction through the treatment of the prepared hydrazones (III3-6) and maleic anhydride ,The structure of the synthesis compounds was confirmed by FT-IR and 1HNMR spectral data , as the physical means ,the biological activity was studied againt two types of bacteria.

Modulation of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress by Ezetimibe in Sreptozotocin induce diabetes mellitus rats

Atheer Majid Rashid Al-Juhaishi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 42-50

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is metabolic diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to reducing in insulin secretion, insulin function, or both. Ezetimibe is a drug that lowers plasma cholesterol levels. A total of 18 male adult albino rats were used in this study. The animals randomized into 3 groups (of 6 rats each). Rats in first group were injected with citrate buffer only and used as healthy control group. While the rats in other two groups were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 60 mg/kg I.P. and treated as following (for 12 weeks), diabetic control group rats received no treatment. Ezetimibe treated group rats received Ezetimibe 6 mg/kg orally once daily. Every 2 weeks, blood glucose level is measured. At the end of 12th weeks, blood samples were collected to measure the blood glucose level and superoxide dismutase activity, and then the animals were sacrificed. The pancreas was removed for histopathology assessment for the degree of islets damage. In result, Ezetimibe was significantly (P<0.05) lower blood glucose levels in compare with the diabetic controls and the activity of SOD was significantly (P<0.05) elevated in rats treated with Ezetimibe compared with the levels in the healthy and diabetic control rats. Histological studies of the pancreas of diabetic control group revealed moderate pancreas islets damage (atrophy of β-cells and cytoplasm rich by inflammatory cells) in compared to rats received Ezetimibe which have showed normal pancreas appearance to mild pancreas islets damage. In conclusions, the present results suggest that Ezetimibe exhibit hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity in diabetic rats.

Effect of buffers on the ertapenem stability in aqueous solution

V. B. Sunderland; Muder Al Hayder

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 51-57

The stability of ertapenem, the active principle of Invanz®, was investigated in citrate (pH 3.50), acetate (pH 4.00 and 5.00), phosphate (pH 5.50, 6.50 and 7.50) and carbonate (pH 8.50) buffer solution at 30˚C and at an ionic strength of 0.5mol L-1.
Changes in the concentration of ertapenem were determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-detection at 230 nm. The mobile phase used was phosphate buffer (20 mM) and acetonitrile (92.5:7.5) respectively.
The degradation of ertapenem obeyed pseudo first-order kinetics under all conditions employed in this study. The activation energy (Ea) for the degradation of ertapenem in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.20) was 62.7kJmol-1. The catalytic effect of acetate and phosphate buffer species towards the degradation of ertapenem was also investigated. The buffer species have a significant catalytic effect on ertapenem degradation which increased with increase of buffer concentration. pH-rate profile of ertapenem displayed three regions; an acid catalytic reaction below pH 5.00, a pH-independent region between pH 5.00 to 7.50 and base catalysed above pH 7.50.

The effect of different doses from hydrocortisone on the liver tissue in the male rat

Douaa Adil Rabee; Haider Jaber Kahiosh; Saad Hamad Abdulatif

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 58-66

The experiment was done in the Animal House of -Department of Biology-College of Education for Pure Sciences -University of Karbala from 20/12/2013- 20/2/2014 ,The study involved the use of (32) Sprague-Dawley rats which were divided into two groups, the first group included 16 rats and this last group was divided to four groups the first three groups were injected intraperitonial injection by double concentration of hydrocortisone (1.5,3, 4.5) mg / kg and volume 1 milliliter from weight of the body for 30 days and the the fourth group was injected by normal Saline 0.9% in the same volumes that used ,The second included 16 rats and this last group was divided to four groups the first three groups were injected intraperitonial injection by double concentration of hydrocortisone (1.5,3, 4.5) mg / kg and volume 1 milliliter from weight of the body for 30 days and the fourth group was injected by normal Saline 0.9% as control in the same volumes that used they were injected for (60) days.
The results of the study confirmed the existence of significant increase (P ≤ 0.01, P ≤ 0.05) in the liver enzyme when injected intraperitonial injection by double concentration of hydrocortisone (1.5,3, 4.5) mg / kg and volume 1 milliliter from weight of the body ALT for 30, 60 day was showed (50.6± 5.92, 58.25 ± 10.24) U/L, (41.50 ± 2.8, 49.25± 1.89, 51 ± 2.44) U/L Respectively When we compared with the control group (32.5± 8.58, 34.25 ± 4.5) U/L Respectively the existence of significant increase (P ≤ 0.01, P ≤ 0.05) in the liver enzyme AST for 30, 60 day (121 ± 45.5, 150.5± 21.1),( 94.7± 18.5, 136.5± 12.4, 200.7 ± 44.9) U/L Respectively when we compared with the control group ( 93.5 ± 11.38, 85.5± 7.5) U/L Respectively the cross-section of liver tissue notice Infiltration of inflammatory cells Figure: (4),(5), Necrosis of hepatocytes Figures: (3),( 4), (5), (6),(7) , Congestion of blood Figures: (4),(5),(7) and appearance of fatty vesicles inside cytoplasm Figure: (4),(7) . When we observe the sections of liver tissue of rats during the two periods (30, 60) day .

Role of Fucus vesiculosus L extract in the regulation of thyroid hormones status in adult male rabbits

Rafah Razooq; Hameed; Atya; Kalif Faris; Maha Atya; Mohameed

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 67-84

Background: The thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3 ) and thyroxine (T4 ) are formed in a large prohormone molecule. The formation of this hormones depends on an exogenous supply of iodide. So that normal thyroid hormone synthesis requires iodide, Fucus vesiculosus (also known by the common name bladder wrack ) is a marine algae rich in iodine, which is being used in alternative medicine as a complement (for weight loss and as source of iodine) and in treatment of thyroid disorders, particularly hypothyroidism.
Aim: Evaluation the use of Fucus vesiculosus in alternative medicine as complement and regulator for the thyroid hormones.
Methods: This study presents the effects of aqueous extract and isolated flavonoids from Fucus vesiculosus L algae to the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone-TSH, T3,T4, antioxidant parameters:glutathione-GSH, glutathione peroxidase-GPx, peroxynitrite and malondialdehyde-MDA in sera of 35 adult male rabbits divided randomly into seven groups (5 animals in each group), in which G1, G2 and G3 treated with (25,50and75) mg/kg/day of aqueous extract of algae respectively, while the G4, G5 and G6 were treated with (25,50and75)mg/kg/day of isolated flavonoids,compared with non-treated as control group.
Results: The results indicate that the level of TSH was significantly decreased (p≤0.05) in sera of rabbits in G3 G4, G5 and G6 with no significant change in G1 and G2 as compared with control, while the level of T4 were significantly decreased (p≤0.05) in sera of all six groups G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6 as compared with control. The levels of T3 show significantly increased (p≤0.01) in sera of G1, G2 G4 and G6 with no significant change in G3 as compared with control, the levels of GSH were significantly decreased (p≤0.05) in sera of G1 ,G2, G4, G5 and G6 with no significant change in G3 as compared with control. Otherwise the levels of GPx were significantly increased (p≤0.05) in sera of G2 and G6, and decreased in G5 with no significant change in G1,G3 and G4 as compared with control, while the levels of peroxynitrate were significantly decreased (p≤0.05) in sera of G1,G3, G4, G5 and G6 and significantly increased (p≤0.05) in G2 as compared with control, while the levels of MDA were significantly increased (p≤0.05) in sera of G2,G3, G5 and G6 as compared with control.
Histological examination of thyroid gland sections from different treated groups showed considerable changes as compared with non-treated as control group, the aqueous extract from algae administration stimulates hyperactivity of thyroid gland in all three groups (G1, G2 and G3). Thyroid follicles became larger, containing dense colloidal. Connective tissues in between thyroid follicles along with blood vessels can be observed, with presence of many profollicular cells in groups treated with isolated flavonoids G4,G5,G6, and the ideal structure of thyroid follicles and moderate colloid material within follicles .
Conclusion: From all the above results we can conclude that the use of algae extracts with suitable antioxidant such as Vit. C (to reduce the oxidative stress) may regulate the thyroid hormones levels and improved the function of thyroid gland in sera of hypothyroidism animals.

Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity Study of Several New Pthalimides Linked to Drugs Molecules

Ahlam Marouf Al-Azzawi; Ahmed Sa; adi Hassan

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 85-93

In this work several new phthalimideslinked to drugs moleculeswere synthesized. Drug molecules used in these syntheses include four β-lactam antibiotics namely(Ampicillin,Amoxicillin, Cefadroxil, Cefotaxime) and two vitamins namely (Thiamine and folic acid).
Some of the new phthalimides were synthesized via two steps in the first one several phthalamic acidslinked to Drug Molecules were synthesized via reaction of phthalic anhydride with(Ampicillin,Amoxicillin, Cefadroxil, Thiamine). The resulted phthalamic acids were dehydrated in the second step via treatment with acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate producing the target phthalimides.
The other target phthalimideswere synthesized via direct fusion of the mixture of phthalic anhydride and drug (Cefotaxime or folic acid).
The new phthalimides were screened for their antimicrobial activity against four types of bacteria and Candida albicans fungi and the results indicated that the new phthalimides exhibit good inhibition effect against the tested organisms.

A Comparative Study Between the Effect of Hydrochlorothiazide and Furosemide on the Anticoagulant Activity of Warfarin

Abulfadhel J. Neamah; Mohammed D. AL-Yousuf; Mohammed Ali M. Younis; Nadhim K. Hante; Zaid M.A. Yousif; Hayder K. Abbas; Ahmed H. Hussein

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 94-102

Background:It has been widely reported that diuretics therapy affect serum calcium level which is in turn may affect the coagulation pathways and thereby could affect the activity of anticoagulation therapy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of simultaneous diuretic intake on the anticoagulant activity of warfarin.
Patients and Method: Twenty patients enrolled in this study divided to two groups, group 1 ( N=10 patients) were taking furosemide 80mg/day plus warfarin 3 mg /day. Group 2 (N=10 patients) were taking hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg /day plus warfarin 3 mg/day. Blood samples were taken from each patient and used for measurement of serum calcium level, prothrombine time(PT) and international normalized ratio(INR). Results: It has been found that there was a significant reduction (P<0.01) in calcium concentration in patients taking furosemide with warfarin (group 1) with respect to those who were taking hydrochlothiazide in addition to warfarin(group 2). On the other hand both PT and INR weresignificantly increased in patients with group 1 with respect to those in group 2.
Conclusions:It may be concluded from this study that the combination of hydrochlorothiazide with warfarin may decrease the anticoagulant activity of the later.

Effect Of Hypervitaminosis D3 (Cholecalciferol) As A cause Of Histological lesions in the Lung and Blood vessels of white Mice Mus musculus

Israa Hashim Ali

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 103-107

The effect of Hypervitaminosis D3 ( Cholocalciferol ) were studied as a cause of lesions in the lung and blood vessels of white Swiss mouse Mus musculus . The white mice were injected with dose of vitamin D3(100000IU) for 21 dayes.
Histologically , many abnormalities were noticed in the internal organs of the mice like the lung and the blood vessels . Also many inflammations and necrosis were found also there were many infiltrated lymphocytes with bleeding in this organs.

Synthesis and characterization of some new bis 1,3-oxazepines and 1,3-imidazolidine with evaluating of its biological activity.

Fawzi Hameed Jumaa and; Rashed Fadel Abbass

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 108-122

In this study some new compounds have been synthesized including preparation of some different Schiff bases (1-5) from the reaction of aromatic amines with terphthadehyde in absolute ethanol and converted into derivatives of 1,3-Oxazepine (of ring closure reaction (2 +5) of Schiff bases with maleic anhydride in benzene (6-10) besides the 1,3- Imidazolidenon (11-15) and evaluation of biological activity for some of them. The prepared compounds were characterized by FT-IR spectra and 1H-NMR spectra for some of the prepared compounds besides the determination of their melting points and TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography.

Effect of Kaff Maryam aqueous extract in mice Kidneys

Asal Aziz Tawfeeq

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 123-130

Thirty mice were used in this study in the ages of (4-8 weeks) and body weight of (25+2 g) for the investigation of the histological effects of Anastatica hierochuntica aqueous extract in mice kidneys. Mice were divided into three groups where the first group was the control group that received daily orally administration of (1ml) of distilled water for two months. The second group were orally administered with a daily dose of (0.1g/ml) of the plant aqueous extract for one month. While, the third group had received the same dose of the second group but for two months. Animals were slayed at the end of the first and the second month and kidneys were autopsied and their histology section slides were examined by light microscope and photographed. Then, images were assessed histopathologically and comparisons were made between the treated groups of mice with the control group. Results showed that, the administration of daily oral doses of (0.1g/ml) of Anastatica hierochuntica aqueous extract for one week did not bring any change to the macroscopic appearance nor to the histology sections of the kidney tissues of the treated animal. whereas, the treatment with daily oral doses of(0.1g/ml) of the aqueous extract for one month had significant effects (P≤0.05) on the mice kidney tissues that included lymphocyte infiltration, necrosis, degeneration and swelling of the glomeruli where the kidneys appeared congested upon macroscopic examination. While, the continual treatment of the animals with the same doses of the plant extract for a second month resulted in an increased damage to the kidney tissues with a complete loss in kidney tissue architecture.

Clinical efficacy of melatonin for prevention of common migraine headache in comparison with propranolol

Alaa A. Ali; Jaafar J.Al-Tamimi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 131-139

Migraine is a common primary headache disorder with a wide spread mechanisms that explain it’s pathologyphysiological and there is no exact single theory that can determine the etiology of this disorder .The successful abortive treatment is obscure tell now a day, indicating prophylactic measures to decrease frequency , severity and duration of headache attacks. Propranolol is one of FDA approved drugs for the common migraine prevention where its chronic therapy reduces the frequency and severity of migraine in 60 to 80 percent of patients . Melatonin a pineal gland hormone that has ability for circadian rhythm control and was linked to migraine several ways. Both episodic (55%) and chronic (62.5%) migraineours reported waking up in the morning with headaches or being woken up at night by the headache . In addition, headaches occurring in the morning period have been attributed to sleep disorders. The present study was carried out to determine the efficacy of melatonin 5 mg daily for prevention of common migraine in comparison with propranolol 40 mg twice daily for 41 patient having for full criteria of common migraine headache with assessment of AST , ALT, Scr for all patients to ensure the safety of investigated drugs .The study concluded that melatonin has no significant difference than that of propranolol efficacy in the common migraine prevention and approved safety .

A new mode for an on-line determination of Ciprofloxacin in pure and pharmaceutical preparation using CFIA with homemade Ayah 3SBGRx3- 3D solar cell microphtometer analyzer.

Nagam S. TurkieAl-Awadie; Malik H. Alaloosh Alamri

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 140-157

A new, simple, accurate, fast and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the analysis of ciprofloxacin in pure and pharmaceutical formulations by continuous flow injection analysis. The method was based on the oxidation of the drug with Ce(IV)sulfate in acidic medium to formed a pinkish-red color species which determined using homemade Ayah 3SBGR x3-3D solar cell flow injection photometer. Optimum conditions were obtained using a high intensity green light emitted diode as a source. The linear dynamic range for the instrument response versus ciprofloxacin concentration was 0.05-12 mmol.L-1 while the L.O.D was of 0.300 µg / sample. The correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9912 while percentage linearity (r2%) was 98.25%. RSD% for the repeatability (n=8) was lower than 0.6% for the determination of ciprofloxacin, at concentration of 12 mmol.L-1. The method was applied successfully for the determination of ciprofloxacin in pharmaceutical preparation. A comparison was made between the newly developed method and the classical method (UV-Vis spectrophotometry) at wave length 551nm of analysis using the standard additions method via the use of paired t-test. It showed that there was no significant difference between the quoted value of each individual company with calculated t-value at 95% confidence interval from developed method, in addition to comparison between two methods and calculate t-value, it was noticed that there was no significant difference between two methods at 95% .

New approach for the on-line turbidimetric determination of metronidazole in pharmaceutical preparation via the use of a new homemade Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar-continuous flow injection analyser

Nagam S.Turkey Al-Awadie; Omar A. Yassin

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 158-171

A newly developed analytical method characterized by its speed and sensitivity for the determination of metronidazole (MZ) in pure and pharmaceutical preparation via turbidimetric measurement (0-180o) by Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar-CFI analyser. The method was based upon the formation of greenish yellow precipitate for ion pair compound for the reaction of phosphomolybdic acid with metronidazole in aqueous medium. Turbidity was measured via the reflection of incident light that collides on the surface precipitated particals at 0-180o. Chemical and physical parameters were investigated. Linear dynamic of metronidazole is ranged from 0.05-8 mmol.L-1,with correlation coefficient r = 0.9821 . The limit of detection (S/N= 3 )(3SB)=171.15 ng/sample from the step wise dilution for the minimum concentration in the linear dynamic ranged of the calibration graph with RSD% lower than 0.5% for 4, 4.5 mmol.L-1 (n=5) concentration of metronidazole. The method was applied successfully for the determination of metronidazole in three pharmaceutical drugs. A comparison was made between the newly developed method analysis with the classical method (HANNA instrument for turbidity measurement) using the standard addition method via the use of t-test. It was noticed that there was no significant difference between two methods at 95 % confidence level.

Evaluation the phagocytosis activity in patients with type II diabetes mellitus

Taghreed Abd N. Alasady; Hadi Rasool Hassan; Wafaa Sadeq Mohsen

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 172-182

The study included 60 patients suffering from T2DM aged between 35 and 70 years and 30 healthy voluntaries as control attending Al-Hussain Teaching Hospital in Karbala province, from May to August 2013. The samples were arranged in two groups of fasting blood sugar (FBS) (200-400mg/dl) and (140-200mg/dl), group1, group2 respectively and group3 represent 30 apparently healthy individuals ages ranged between 35 -70 years.
The results appear significantly decrease in the percent of phagocytosis and killing index after 1.5 h and 24 h of incubation periods with bacteria in T2DM as compared with control.
Extracellular and intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined and the results were shown elevated extracellular free radicals , while the reverse occurs in the case of intracellular SOD and NO which shows a decrease in T2DM patients in compared with control.
C - reactive protein(CRP) was estimated and the results were shown positive relationship between FBS and CRP concentration also the results show high concentration of this component in T2DM patients than in control.

Determination of optimum condition for Poly-β-Hydroxybutyrate Production from Bacillus spp .

Najeh Hashem Kadhim and; Noor Abd- ulamer Oda

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 183-194

The optimum cultural and ecological condition for Poly-β-Hydroxybutyrate Production from Bacillus spp. Isolate which was isolated from soil samples at holy Kerbala governorate were studied .
These condition represented by the type and the concentration of carbon , nitrogen and mineral salts source ,in addition to the incubation period temperature , shaking speed , initial pH of production medium and occulation volume . Results revealed that , using production medium containing Date syrup at 2% as a source of carbon and ammonium chlorate at 0.2 % as a source of nitrogen , accompanied with Potassium phosphate and magnesium sulphate at 0.105 % as a total concentration for mineral salts source . The pH was adjusted to 7 with 2% v/v occulation volume . The medium was inoculated by using shaking inocular with 40 ˚C at 200 rpm /min for 72 hr.

Synthesis, Characterization and Study Biological activity of some New 1,3-Oxazepine and 1,3-Diazepine derivatives

Ruaa W. Adam; Ezzat.H.Zimam

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 195-217

New 1,3-oxazepine and 1,3-diazepine derivatives containing azo group have been prepared. The first step,(O-tolidine) was converted to [3,3`-dimethyl-(1,1`-biphenyl) -4,4`-diyl) bis (diazene-1,2-diyl))bis(naphthalene-2- amine)] Azo O-tolidine[A].by Azotization reaction with naphthyl amine. The second step, amine group of the azo derivative [A] was condensed with different aromatic aldehydes[p-dimethyleaminobenzaldehyde, 4-chlrobenzaldehyde,4-nitrobenzaldehyde,4-bromo benzal dehyde , 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde] in the presence of absolute ethanol to give new azo Schiff bases derivatives [B-F] respectively. Then, the resulting imines derivatives [B-F] were reacted with maleic anhydride and phathalic anhydride in dry benzene to give new 1,3-oxazepine-4,7-dione ring derivatives [Ba-Fa] , [Bb-Fb] , all these compound reaction with sulphadiazene to producte 1,3-diazepine-4,7-dione ring derivatives [Ba1-Fb2]. Also study the Biological activity to this derivatives ; All prepared compounds were characterized by melting points and FT.IR spectroscopy, some of them are characterized by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and C.H.N analysis.

The quantification of human factor IX gene expression in transfected mammalian liver cells, employing the real time qPCR and the ELISA techniques

Zaid Al-Obaidi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 218-226

Real-time qPCR and ELISA are very sensitive powerful techniques that were commonly and universally employed in the quantification of gene expression. The aim of this study has two parts; the first part is to quantify the level of the hFIX gene expression employing the real time qPCR for quantifying the newly transcribed mRNA. The second part is to detect the translated rFIX protein using the ELISA technique. In this study the mRNA levels present in mammalian liver cells (HepG2) that were transfected with hFIX gene has been successfully quantified by qPCR using hACTB as a housekeeping gene. Also the level of the translated rFIX protein has been observed utilizing the ELISA instrument. ∆Ct and ∆∆Ct for the transfected cells were -1 and -21 respectively, while the concentration of the rFIX in these cells was 5,495 ng/ml, which is more than 800 times increase when compared with the control cells. The validation of such methods, which are used for quantification of both the gene and the translated protein, is of significant importance. Furthermore the examination of the functionality of the target protein is even more important due to the challenges associated with these techniques.

Protective Effect of Camel Milk Against Aspirin Induced Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats

MOHAMMED TALAT ABBAS

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 227-237

The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective effect of camil milk on aspirin-induced oxidative stress in the liver of male albino rats. The current study included 24 male rats, which were divided into 4 groups, each group included 6 rats: group 1 as a control group, Group 2 was given aspirin at 100 mg/kg /day, orally via gavage ,Group 3 was given camil milk orally via gavage at 1 mL/kg/day and group 4 were given aspirin at 100 mg/kg/day and (after 3 hours) camil milk at 1 mL/kg/day, orally via gavage for 30 days. The results show significantly increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activity, which is associated with histopathological damage of the liver. Aspirin increased oxidative stress through the increase in malodialdehyde level and decrease in superoxide dismutase , catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes. This modulation of the biological parameter histological damage is significantly neutralized by the administration of the camil milk. From which we can conduct that administer of the camil milk reduce the toxicity and damage caused by the aspirin.

Determination of Atenolol in Human Plasma by New HPLC Method with Fluorescence Detection for Pharmacokinetics Studies

Ahmed A. Hussein

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 238-261

Purpose: A new, sensitive, specific and precise HPLC analysis method was developed for the determination of atenolol in human plasma in order to be utilized for pharmacokinetics study. Methods: The drug was extracted from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction technique using dichloromethane: 2-propanol (75:25). Bamethan sulfate was used as internal standard (IS). Samples were analyzed on ODS-3 C18 Intertsil column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm), applying triethylamine (0.5%): methanol at a ratio of 90:10v/v with a final pH of 3.5 in isocratic mode as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.3 ml/min to attain adequate resolution. Using a Spectra autosampler, separations were performed at room temperature and monitored at an excitation wavelength of 228 nm and an emission wavelength of 298 nm after injection a 60μl sample into the HPLC system.
Results: A peak area was obtained for atenolol and bamethan with 6.4 and 10.4min retention time, respectively. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was identifiable and reproducible at 10ng/ml with a precision of 1.754%. The intra-day and inter-day precision at 30, 400 and 700 ng /ml level was found to be 1.909%, 1.571% , 1.358% and 3.229, 1.471, 3.246 respectively, always lower than the accepted criteria limits (15%). The relative recovery% of atenolol at 30, 400, and 700ng/ml was found to be 100.733, 99.948, and 98.599 respectively. Conclusions: The analysis method was found to be sensitive, accurate, and precise for the quantification of atenolol in human plasma. It was applied successfully, for pharmacokinetics studies

Early Nephroprotective Effect of Alhagi graecorum Boiss in Rabbits Ahmed H. Ismael MBChB, PhD

Ahmed H. Ismael

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 262-270

Nephrocalcinosis is the deposition of calcium in the form of phosphate or oxalate within the renal tissue, which may lead to impaire the renal function. These crystals may aggregate and provide a nidus for the formation of renal stone. This study aims to evaluate the potential effect of Alhagi graecorum Boiss (Manna tree) in prevention of induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model. A twenty-one local domestic rabbits were used in the study. Oxalic acid was given orally to induce nephrocalcinosis in a dose of 333 mg /kg. The animals were allocated into three groups (seven in each); a negative control group received D.W, a positive control group treated with 25 mg/kg Hydrochlorothiazide, and a third group that treated with the aqueous extract of Manna tree roots in a dose of 1 gm/kg. Animals were treated two hours before induction of nephrocalcinosis by using one of the above-mentioned agents for each group. Renal function was assessed by estimating blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine, on three occasions: 1st day before induction, 3rd and 5th day after induction. These results were compared with that of the control group to determine how much the nephroprotective effect of the tested agent. Parameters of second and third groups that were treated with Hydrochlorothiazide and Manna tree respectively, showed a highly significant reduction (p≤0.001) in the levels of BUN and serum creatinine due to their diuretic effect in comparison with the negative control group. From the above one can conclude that Alhagi graecorum Boiss possess nephroprotective effect when used in a dose of 1 gm/kg against induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbits.

The Trichomonasis Spread Between Married Women Revisions to The Health Center in Samarra

Ilham Aed Asaad Al-Tikrity; Marwa Shakir Mahmood Al-Badry

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 271-276

The current study was investigated the prevalence of Trichomoniasis among married women in Samarra city (Alqatoul center health -Samarra) for the period of 5/10/2012 -20/4/2013. The results were indicated that the total infection was 14.76%. The results showed differentiation in the percentage of infection according to the diagnostic methods, higher percentage for prevalence 14.76% and sensitivity 100% was obtained by culture on liquid medium by Diamonds’ TYM medium(Remel) diagnostic method while the prevalence of obtained by direct examination was 3.33% and sensitivity 22.58% .The infection percentages were different among the aged groups in which the highest percentage of infection was 29.03% in the aged group(26-30) year and lower percentage of 6.45% was in aged group (15-20) year. Also the results showed that the percentage of non-pregnant women infection was higher than the pregnant women, reached to 90.48% and 9.52% respectively, symptoms vaginal discharges gave a maximum infection rate reached to 100% while burning feeling lower percentage was 54.83%

Preparation of nanohybrid compound from the food preservative octyl gallate and studying some of its biological activities

Salah Hashim Shaheed; Ali Abdul Kadhim Al-Ghanimi; Abbas Matrood Bashi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 277-289

A nanohybrid compound Mg/Al-OG-LDH was prepared using ion exchange method between the food preservative octyl gallate (OG) and Mg/Al layered double hydroxide. The new nanocompound was identified. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed the appearance of new groups in the Mg/Al-OG-LDH spectrum which indicates the formation of new compound. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectrum revealed the appearance of new diffraction planes in the nanohybrid compound spectrum in compare with the spectrum of layered double hydroxide. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed the presence of some change in the Mg/Al-OG-LDH surface. The two and three dimensional image of the above compound in atomic force microscope confirmed the formation of new compound with nanodimensions. The antimicrobial activity of the nanohybrid compound was studied against five species of gram positive bacteria. Results showed that highest inhibition was obtained against Staphylococcus aureus with an inhibition zone of 14 mm at 15 mg/ml concentration. The nanocompound was more efficient than the free compound OG in inhibiting the two toxin producers fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus . Results of antioxidants activity showed the ability of the Mg/Al-OG-LDH in scavenging the free radical ATBS where the inhibition percent was at 75 µg/ml.