ISSN: 7027-2221

Volume 4, Issue 6

Volume 4, Issue 6, Spring 2013, Page 1-212

Preparation and Evaluation of ketoprofen as Dermal Spray Film

Nawal A. Rajab

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 1-8

Ketoprofen is one of the very potent and safe non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that belong to the propionic acid derivatives group. The aim of this study was to prepare spray film of ketoprofen and evaluate its properties as pH, viscosity, volume of solution delivered per each actuation, spray angle, evaporation time, content uniformity, and in vitro drug release. Different types of film forming polymer were investigated. The best formula containing mixture of 0.05% w/w poloxamer 407 and 0.05% w/w carbopol 940 was found to have pH, content uniformity, viscosity, drying time, volume per each actuation, and spray angle of 5.2, 100.6%, 1.5 mpse, 91sec., 0.09 ml, and 79.90 respectively. Drug release of the selected film was found to be 49.7% at 20 hrs with kinetic release of Higuchi model (R 2 of 0.9). Based on abstained results, it was concluded that ketoprofen can be prepared as dermal spray film using a mixture of 0.05% w/w for both poloxamer 407 and carbopol 940 as film forming polymer.

Obesity And Inflammation Induces By High Fat Diet Concomitant With Mild Fatty Streak In Coronary Artery: Immuno-Histopathological Study

Jasem Hannon Hashim Al-Awadi; Alaa Jawad Hassen; Karem Hammed Rashid

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 9-20

This research was designed to study the obesity which induced by rats fed on high fat diet which characterized by gain in body weight and elevation of some immunological parameters which often concomitant with mild to moderate fatty streak in coronary artery and the effects of atorvastatin treatment of male albino rats, the result showed:
High significant increase(p<0.0005)in total and gain body weight of positive control rats, while atorvastatin treatment caused significant decrease(p<0.005) in both total and gain body weight of hyperlipidemic rats as compared with positive control group, also atorvastatin reduce gain body weight in normolipidemic rats as compared with negative control group.
There were high significant increase(p<0.0005)in C3,C4 in normolipidemic rats which treated with atorvastatin, while there were significant increase(p<0.0005)in CRP,C3,C4 in hyperlipidemic rats of positive control group, whereas the treatment by atorvastatin result in returned the concentration of CRP,C3,C4 to its normal values as compared to negative control rats.
The histological sections of coronary arteries and its some branches were revealed the presence of fatty streak, infiltration of fat laden cells(foam cells)in subintimal layer of coronary arteries of positive control rats ted on HFD,also smooth muscle cell proliferation, vacuolar of tunica media were observed in the coronary arteries of these animals as a signs of onset of atherosclerosis, whereas atorvastatin reduced completely the presence of all these changes after three months of treatment.Thus our conclusions that atorvastatin reduced the body weight gain in hyperlipidemic animals, induce inflammatory changes in normolipidemic animals and reduced all signs of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries.

High Fat Diet Induce Hyperlipidemia Incidences With Sever Changes in Liver Tissue of Male Albino Rats: A Histological and Biochemical Study

Jasem Hannon Hashim Al-Awadi; Karem Hammed Rashid; Alaa Jawad Hassen

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 21-32

This study was designed to investigate the effects of high fat diet on liver tissue as well as biochemical changes of lipid profiles of hyperlipidemic and normolipidemic rats which treated with atorvastatin before and after induction of hyperlipidemia by feeding the rats with high fat diet, the result showed:
There was high significant increase(p<0.0005)in TC,TG,LDL,VLDL , and AI, but there was high significant decrease in HDL in rats fed on HFD for seven months if compared with negative control group, while atorvastatin treatment caused high significant decrease(p<0.0005)in lipid profile parameters after three months of treatments if compared to positive control group. Atorvastatin treatment result in high significant decrease (p<0.0005,p<0.005)in TC,TG,LDL,VLDL, and AI in normolipidemic rats as compared with negative control group.
The histological sections of liver were revealed presence of severe histopathological changes which classified into grades between 0-4. The most severe changes were in liver sections of hyperlipidemic rats which consist: infiltration of lipids in micro, mid, and macro vascular steatosis, while some livers were observed to contain onset of fat sacs, damage of unique radial appearances of hepatocytes in hepatic lobule, lymphocytes infiltration, congestion also observed in some liver section of these animals, whereas the histopathological changes in livers of normolipidemic rats which treated with atorvastatin were less severity as compared with positive control rats these changes included: sever lymphocytes infiltration especially around central portal vein, pyknotic nuclei, severe congestion and loss radial appearances of hepatocytes also there was dilatation of central portal vein and some bile ducts, while atorvastatin treatment reduce the effects mentioned in some hyperlipidemic individuals.

A Comparison Study of Lead Poisoning of Occupational Workers in Acid Battery Factory

Samir Abbas; Kawakib Jabir; Kassim Sowdani M

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 33-38

In this investigation, a comparison study of blood lead levels (BLL) were performed for occupational workers of Babil -1 Acid Battery Factory in Baghdad when the plant was fully operational, in 1987, and after eight years 2003 closer. A substantial amount of lead, 22%, was excreted as compared to that of 1987 results. Such finding has been confirmed as normal values by the widely used indicator of oxidative stress, malonaldehyde were reduced in a similar fashion. The poor correlation between BLL and malonaldehyde level in plasma has R2 value of 0.0013. Forty two volunteers were randomly selected, twelve served as control.

Biological activitity of nano hybrid from Rifampicin intercalated with Ni/Al and Mg/Al Layered double hydroxides

Abbas M. Bashi; Ali Abdkhadim Alghanimi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 39-46

This work included synthesis of Rafampicin intercalated with both Mg/Al and Ni/Al Layered double hydroxide to give a nano hybrid materials, these materials were characterized by X-Ray diffractions (XRD) and Fourier transformation Infra red(FTIR), controlled release and Biological activity tests of the resulted nano materials was evaluated against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

Biochemical studies of thyrotrophin,L-fucose,cathepsin B and some parameters in blood serum of patients suffering from breast tumour

Sabah hussian khorsheed

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 47-57

A developed methed was established to 70 patients suffering from breast tumour(negative axilliary node) from kirkuk city to determine the level of total fucose (TF),protein bound fucose (PBF),iron(Fe),total iron binding capacity(TIBC),unsatuted iron binding capacity(UIBC),transferrien,transferrien saturation,alkalin Phosphate(ALP),total protein(TP),albumin(ALB),glubuline(GLUB). The study also determines the level of thyrotropin (TSH),cathepsin B ,cholestol(CH),high density Lipoprotein cholestol (HDL-c),low density lipoprotein(LDL) in sera of three groups(benign, pre-post menopausal malignant of breast tumour. The results obtained showed highly significant increase in the level of TF,PBF, ALP,TP,GLUB,TIBC,and for(15-25),(36-45)age group for Fe and transferrien saturation,while there are highly significant decrease in UIBC,TIBC,Transferrien,ALB concentration in sera of breast tumour patients compared with control group. The results obtained about TSH,cathepsin B showed that there is significant decrease in sera of women affected by benign tumour and significant increase in sera of premenopausal breast tumour ,while in postmenopausal breast there is more significant increase of cathepsin B and more significant decrease of TSH,and also there is elevation in CH,LDL, and decrease in HDL-c for benign to pre to Postmenopausal breast tumour.

Anticonvulsant activity of Apium graveolens in male mice

Entisar J. Al Mukhtar

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 58-68

Epilepsy is a heterogeneous symptom complex—a chronic disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Seizures are finite episodes of brain dysfunction resulting from abnormal discharge of cerebral neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticonvulsant effect of Apium graveolens.
Convulsions were induced by lidocaine in four groups of male albino mice. Group one and two received two different oral doses of Apium graveolens (A. graveolens) daily for 10 days, at day eleven convulsions were induced by lidocaine, group three and four were injected with distill water (D.W) and diazepam (DIZ) respectively 30 minutes before lidocaine injection. Onset and duration of convulsions were recorded and compared as a main effect to lidocaine, the onset of ataxia and drowsiness were also recorded.
No significant differences were found (p>0.05) in the onset of convulsion between D.W and other treated groups. A. graveolens at 15 g/kg not significantly delayed the onset of convulsion in comparison to other groups. Regarding the duration of convulsion it was high significantly increased (p<0.01) in D.W. group in comparison to other groups, The duration of convulsion was non significantly (p>0.05) reduced in 15 g/kg A. graveolens compared to DIZ, while it was high significantly decreased (p<0.01) in A. graveolens 15 g/kg compared to 7.5 g/kg.
Ataxia did not occurred in both 7.5 g/kg A. graveolens and D.W groups. The 15 g/kg A. graveolens significantly (p<0.05) delayed the onset of ataxia in comparison to DIZ.
The onset of drowsiness was significantly (p<0.05) delayed in 15 g/kg A. graveolens compared to D.W, while it was non significantly (p>0.05) delayed in 15 g/kg A. graveolens compared to 7.5 g/kg A. graveolens and DIZ groups. In conclusion Apium graveolens has anticonvulsant activity. At the dose 15g/kg the anticonvulsant effect of A. graveolens was higher than that of DIZ, while at the dose 7.5g/kg of A. graveolens it was less than that of DIZ.

Asensitive colorimetric method for the determination of Methyldopa in pharmaceutical preparation via oxidative coupling organic reaction with Thiamine Hydrochloride in the presence of potassium periodate

Muneer . A . A . AL-Da; amy; Rashwan . F. AL-Moswi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 69-77

A simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of Methyldopa in pure and pharmaceutical preparations has been developed .The proposed method uses Thiamine Hydrochloride as anew chromogenic reagent . The method is based on the oxidative coupling reaction of Methyldopa with Thiamine Hydrochloride with potassium periodate in neutral media to form orange water soluble dye product , that has a maximum absorption at λmax 480 nm . Linear calibration graph was in the range of (1.00–25.00) µ with molar absorptivity of (0.53 ×104 ,a sandall sensitivity of (4.49 ×10-5 µ , correlation coefficient of (0.9997) , detection limit (0.38 µ and the relative standard deviation of RSD% (0.97) . The method was applied successfully for the determination of Methyldopa in pharmaceutical preparations and the value of recovery % was better than (102%)

Total Serum IgE Level in Relation to Some Risk Factors of Childhood Asthma

Haidar A. N. Abood; Mohammad R. I. Ghazal; Zuhair M. Al-Musawi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 78-84

Measurement of total serum IgE (TSIgE) levels in asthmatic children can be used for supporting the diagnosis of allergic asthma, predicting asthma severity and monitoring response to therapy. Elevated TSIgE level is important risk factor for persistent childhood asthma. The present study aims to determine the extent of elevation in TSIgE levels among asthmatic children and its association with some risk factors of childhood asthma. This cross sectional study was conducted in Kerbala Teaching Hospital for Children on 154 asthmatic children. An interview was conducted with patients (including their parents) through a questionnaire prepared for this purpose to report patient's information and clinical data. All patients were screened for the presence of elevated TSIgE by a qualitative method followed by quantitative measurement of TSIgE concentration. Absolute eosinophils count was also determined. Seventy five (48.7%) patients showed positive IgE screening test and 79 (51.3%) patients showed negative IgE screening test. 61.4% of asthmatic children in the age group 5-10 years and 55.5% of patients in the age group >10 years were IgE (+ve), while only 33.3% of patients in the age group <5 years were IgE (+ve). The mean TSIgE level was 874.97±1323.85 IU/ml for IgE (+ve) patients (56% had levels <500, 21.3% between 500-1000, and 22.7% >1000 IU/ml) and 38.19±19.23 IU/ml for IgE (-ve) patients. The ages of patients in the IgE (+ve) group were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those for patients in the IgE (-ve) group. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between patients in both groups regarding absolute eosinophils count, patient's weight, gender, positive personal history of atopic dermatitis and/or allergic rhinitis, positive family history of asthma and exposure to smoking . In conclusion, there is high association between age and TSIgE levels in asthmatic children, with elevated levels mostly seen in older children. No association present between elevation in TSIgE and other risk factors for childhood asthma like; male gender, positive family history of asthma, exposure to tobacco smoke and peripheral blood eosinophilia.

A potential role of Cinnamon in improvement of glycemic control in untreated diabetic patients

Ali Abdil Razzaq Mohammed Noori Aldallal

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 85-91

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of supplementation with a whole cinnamon on glycemic control measurements.
Methods and materials: forty eighth patients with Diabetes mellitus type II who are not received any hypoglycemic agents nor on insulin therapy, (aged ≥ 38 years and body mass index ≤ 30kg/m2),their fasting blood glucose: levels between (186–332mg/dl) were randomly assigned to supplement cinnamon 1g, 2g, and 4g or a placebo for three months. Main outcome measures were changed in fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, kidney function tests like: blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine , and liver function tests represented Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase ,Alkaline phosphatase measured after three months of supplementation.
Results: After 3months, all three doses of cinnamon 1g, 2g, and 4g showed significant decreases in the fasting blood glucose (16.91–18.37%), postprandial blood glucose (16.16–16.6%), and glycated hemoglobin (15.02-17.3%) levels; no significant changes were noted in the placebo groups or in kidney function tests; blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and liver function tests; Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, and Alkaline phosphatase.
Conclusions: The results support the efficiency of cinnamon supplementation on reducing fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin in patients with the diabetes mellitus and suggest that this naturally-occurring spice can reduce risk factors associated with diabetes.

Molecular detection and production of mcrocin from Escherichia coli isolated from different clinical samples

Alaa abdul-Razzaq; Mohammed Sabri Abdul-Razzaq

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 92-100

In this study, nine genes responsible for microcins production were detected, from seventeen clinical isolate of E.coli collected from 50 samples by using PCR techniques. catechol microcin was present in all isolates, and microcin H47 are present in 6 isolates ,where microcin M are found in 5 isolates. Also partial purification of microcin by ammonium sulphate and dialysis are conducted in this study, and find the relationship between microcin production and virulence factors of UPEC in patients with UTI. Where microcin consider narrow spectrum antibacterial peptide that inhibit the growth of other bacteria from related species during nutrition deficiency specially in low iron level.

The Gastroprotective Effect of Proton Pump Inhibitors on Ethanol - Induced Gastric Erosion in Rats

Nuha F. Obeid; Mazin H. Ouda; Zahra F. Mahdi; BasmaM. Edan; Elaf Q.Hasan

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 101-109

Peptic ulcer diseases are one of the wide spread diseases. The causes of peptic ulcer diseases are increases gastric acid secretion. Studies focusing on the harmful effect of intra-gastric administration of ethanol which results in gastric mucosal injury, characterized by mucosal edema, sub-epithelial hemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration. Omeprazole and pantoprazole are proton pump inhibitors used in the treatment of gastric ulcer and gastroesophageal disease that inhibit gastric acid secretion by blocking the H+/K+- adenosine triphosphate enzyme. The present study was carried out to determine the anti-ulcer activity of proton pump inhibitors ( omeprazole 10mg/kg and pantoprazole 3 mg/kg) on ethanol- induced ulcer rat model. Healthy Sprague Dawley rats with 12-14 weeks of age of either sex weighing between 150-200 gm. were used for present study. The animals were divided into three groups six animals in each .The ulcer was induced by administering ethanol 50% orally and the treated groups was drenched 10mg/kg omeprazole and pantoprazole 3mg/kg. The anti-ulcer activity of omeprazole and pantoprazole was able to protect against ulcer formation by ethanol was indicated by a decrease in ulcer index of both treated groups. From this study it can be concluded that omeprazole and pantoprazole possess anti-ulcerogenic activity. Besides , omeprazole might be better than pantoprazole in protection against ethanol- induced ulcer.

Hepatoprotective effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) on female rats drenched with paracetamol

Shatha hussein kadhim; Amal Umran Mosa; Mazin Hamid Ouda

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 110-116

Hepatotoxicity is an acute adverse effect of paracetamol overdose which could be fatal, so in this research we studied the effect of paracetamol on liver enzymes (GPT, GOT, total protein , glucose ,uric acid ) of female rats that drenched green tea. twenty laboratory female rats housed in plastic cages in animal house at Karbala university/ college of pharmacy , the animals divided randomly into five groups ,(G1 control, G2 drenched with 300 mg/kg green tea and 500 mg/kg paracetamol, G3 drenched with 500 mg/kg green tea and 500 mg/kg paracetamol , G4 drenched with 500 mg/kg paracetamol ,G5 drenched with 500 mg/kg green tea ) , the present study found the ability of green tea to protect liver enzyme against the poisonous effect of paracetamol by reducing the higher value of GPT,GOT, Glucose, and evaluated the lower value of Uric acid and total protein causing by paracetamol.

Molecular study of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus lugdunensis (MRSL) Isolates in Hilla city, Iraq

Mohammed H. Obayes; Alaa H. Al-Charrakh

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 117-126

Out of 690 clinical samples collected from different site (wound, burn, blood culture, sub axillary, urine, stool , sputum, throat, ear, skin lesion, high vaginal, and other different swabs), a total of 178 coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) isolates were recovered. Based on phenotypic characteristics, CoNS were identified into 10 different species; 22 isolates were belonged to Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Two specific genes for S. lugdunensis were used (tanA gene and fbl gene) to confirm identification. Both of these specific genes were detected in 15 (68.1 %) of 22 isolates that identified phenotypically. The remaining 7 isolates (31.9 %) were re-identified as S. pseudolugdunensis. β-lactam resistance screening test showed that 11 (73.3 %) of S. lugdunensis isolates were ampicillin resistant. The results of oxacillin screening test and Oxacillin MIC showed that 7 of the 15 (46.6 %) S. lugdunensis isolates were oxacillin resistant; all these were resistant to ampicillin. The antibiotic susceptibility test by Disc Diffusion test and MIC to 16 antibiotics showed that resistance rates towards these antibiotics. Eight of fifteen S. lugdunensis isolates (53.3 %) were β-lactamase producer. All these isolates were Ampicillin resistant.
Results of mecA gene found that mec A gene was detected in 6 (40 %) of 15 S. lugdunensis. All of these 6 isolates (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6) were resistant to oxacillin. One isolate (S7) was resistant to Oxacillin but mecA was not detected in this isolates. This study is a first record of isolation and characterization of MRSL form clinical samples in Iraq.

Activity assay of plasma fibrinogen in patients with diabetes.

Mohammed Shnain Ali

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 127-131

Thrombosis secondary to atherosclerosis or hypercoagulability state in diabetes mellitus may be the cause of death in many patients. Patients with diabetes mellitus (n=28, 16 males and 12 females), together with 28 age and sex matched healthy individuals (as controls), were studied after their consent. For each individual (patients and controls), following medical history,
4 ml of venous blood sample was obtained and investigated for HbA1c level, fibrinogen level by doing Claus technique and blood sugar estimation. Hyperfibrinogenaemia in patients with diabetes mellitus (mean plasma fibrinogen 6.8±1.1) is statistically significant (P< 0.05) as compared to control (mean plasma fibrinogen 3.3±1.3). Plasma fibrinogen level is high in patients with diabetes mellitus, suggesting that plasma fibrinogen can contribute to vascular diseases in patients with diabetes mellitus like vascular thrombosis.

The microbial contamination study of some herbal cosmatics products used in traditional medicine in Iraq

Ibrahim S.Abaas; Haithem R. Mohammed; Ali H. Majeed

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 132-140

Herbal Cosmetic products contain variable amounts of natural material such as nutrients that support microbial growth. Most contaminants in herbal cosmetic products include bacteria sach as Staphylococcus ,Pseudomenas ,Klebsiella, Achromobacter and Alcaligenes. Contaminated water is likely source of organisms found in herbal cosmetic produets, extractes and crude of natural material.
Herbal cosmetic products sach as shampoo ,hand and body lotion ,facial cleanser,and liquid soaps were analyzed .In this study out of sixty herbal cosmetic products analyzed,27.3% were found to be contaminated.Most of the contamination was from bacteria while no fungal contamination was detected, The highest level of contamination occurred in shampoo. Viable bacterial were not recovered from 100%,92.7, 91.5% and 88.3% of showed herbal bath soaps,herbal facial cleanser ,hand and body herbal lotion and herbal shampoos, respectively .Coliforms were recovered from one sample of herbal shampoos. One isolate of shigella and paseudomonas earuginosa was detected from two samples of herbal shampoo.

Antibacterial activity of the volatile oils from Mentha piperia L. and Vitex agnus-castus L on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn injuries

Luma A. Mezaal; Thikra A. Jawad; Ibrahim S. Abbas

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 141-146

This study was aimed to extract the volatile oils from two medicinal plants (Mentha piperia, and Vitexagnus-castus)and evaluation of biological activity against the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn injuries that collected from patients in Al Hussein Hospital / Karbala .The present experimental in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils on the isolates was determined by disc diffusion method . Microdilution broth susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the MICs of essential oils. The essential oils of M. piperia had strong antimicrobial activity (inhibition zone22.5–10 mm) when 0.5µl and 0.25 µl where as V. agnus castus had moderate antibacterial activity (inhibition zone reached 12.5mm at 0.5 µl) .According to the results, essential oils exhibited moderate to strong antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria

Is There Any Association Between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Biochemical Evidence of Vitamin D Deficiency?

Riyadh Mustafa Murtadha

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 147-152

Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a major public health problem, known to be multifactorial in origin. Over the last years, a number of observational studies have suggested an association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency.
Objective: To identify any association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and biochemical evidence of vitamin D deficiency in our population.
Methods: This study was conducted at outpatient clinic in Karbala throughout the year 2011, with a cross-sectional design. The populations were patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-diabetic subjects, who visited the clinic for treatment; all of them had normal renal function. Data collected including characteristics, such as age, sex & body mass index; and the laboratory data such as serum level of calcium, phosphorus, albumin and alkaline phosphatase. Statistical analysis was done by using Chi-Square test and multivariate analysis.
Results: A total number of 64 subjects (Age 45-75 years; 67% female); of them, 32 subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 32 subjects without diabetes mellitus. The biochemical evidence of vitamin D deficiency was found in 22% (7 out of 32) of diabetic patients, while it was in 25% (8 out of 32) of non-diabetic subjects. So, there was no statistical difference between the two groups. Moreover, among diabetics, there was no effect of vitamin D deficiency on blood sugar control by measuring HbA1C level.
Conclusions: The association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and biochemical evidence of vitamin D deficiency cannot be proven statistically in this study.

Preparation and In-vitro Evaluation of Metoprolol Tartrate Proniosomal Gel

Hayder K. Abbas; Ienas F; Ahmed H. Hussein; Mohammed D. Al-yousuf; Dhurgham Q. Shaheed

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 153-163

The aim of this research is to prepare metoprolol tartrate niosomal gel as transdermal drug delivery system and also to evaluate procedure related variables like type of surfactant and release of drug from niosomes. Metoprolol tartrate niosomes are formulated by coacervation-phase separation method using different types of non-ionic surfactant (Span or Tween of different HLB value), lecithin and cholesterol. The prepared formulations are estimated for its entrapment efficiency, vesicle size (optical microscope and ABT-9000 NANO Laser particle size analyzer), the compatibility of the drug and additives used (Fourier Transform Infra Red -FT-IR spectroscopy) and morphological characters (Scanning Electron Microscopy- SEM). Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) studies, confirm that there is no interaction between drug and other formulation components of niosome. Higher entrapment efficiencies are obtained with Span 40 and span 60 (86.6%±8.07 and 78.09±15.44 respectively) and the release rate at 11 hr from span 40 niosomes is found to be 31.18%. In conclusion, the niosomal gel formulation could be a promising transdermal delivery system for metoprolol tartarate with prolonged drug release profiles

Determination of Nitrofurantoin in Drug Formulations by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Imad Tarek Hanoon; Hussian Hassan Kharnoob

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 164-178

In the present work the Nitrofurantoin drug is determined in its pharmaceuitical preparation using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique with L1 column length 25cm and 4.6mm diameter. The mobile phase of acetonitrile ,and buffer solution pH 3.3 and ratio (30:70) for used.The flow rate was 1.0 m1 min -1 , Injection volum was 100 µl of 5ppm of (NFT) . The signal was detected at 254 nm with retention time 4.592 min in the range 5-25 ppm and detectiom limit 0.3425.
This method was succefully applied for the determinarion of Nitrofurantoin its pharmuceuitical preparation with recovery of not less than 106.8%

Copper (I) Catalyzed Synthesis and Antibacterial activity of 1,2,3-Triazoles Based on D-Fructose

Adnan Ibrahim Mohammed; Narjis Hadi Mansoor; Jalal Hasan Mohammed

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 180-195

Four n-alkyl azides; n-heptyl azide, n-octyl azide, n-decyl azide and n-dodecyl azide (1a-d) were prepared via SN2 reaction of alkyl halides and sodium azide. In different step, D-fructose was converted to 2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-D-fructopyranose (3) using acetone and sulfuric acid as catalyst. The reaction of compound (3) with propargyl bromide in DMF afforded the terminal acetylene (4) in very good yield. The derivative (4) was reacted with synthesized n-alkyl azides (1a-d) via cycloaddition reaction using Cu(I) as catalyst afforded D-fructose based 1,2,3-triazoles (5a-d). The acetal groups of triazoles (5a-d) were removed under acidic conditions to give the deprotected triazoles (6a-d). All synthesized compound were identified by TLC, FTIR and most of them were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HRMS. The synthesized compounds showed antibacterial activity in vitro against two kinds of bacteria: Escherichia coli (-) and Staphylococcus aureus (+).

Determination of Glimepiride in Drug Formulations by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Imad Tarek Hanoon; Hussian Hassan Kharnoob

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 196-212

غليميبرايد , أسيتونتريل , ماء , ميثانول- In the present work the Glimepiride drug is determined in its pharmaceuitical preparation using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique with L1 column length 25cm and 4.6mm diameter. The mobile phase of acetonitrile ,water, methanol and sodium phosphate mono basic and ratio (60:20:10:10) for used.The flow rate was 1.5 m1 min -1 , Injection volum was 20 µl . The signal was detected at 230 nm with retention time 8.916 min in the range 10-50 ppm and detectiom limit 2.7×10-5. - This method was succefully applied for the determinarion of Glimepiride its pharmuceuitical preparation with recovery of not less than 100.23ِِ%