ISSN: 7027-2221

Volume 4, Issue 4

Volume 4, Issue 4, Winter 2013, Page 1-204

Preparation, In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation of MucoadhesiveBuccal Films of Silibinin

Ahmed A. Hussein; Mowafaq M. Ghareeb; Qasim A. Bader

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 1-10

Silibinin is a major biologically active compound present in the Compositae family of plants with promising antinflammatory activity. The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize formulations of mucoadhesivefilms of silibinin to be used for buccal ulcer.Twelve film formulas were prepared by the solvent casting method using several polymers namely: sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), carbopol 934, Eudragit E-100, and sodium alginate at various ratios. The prepared films were characterized in terms of film thickness, weight variation, swelling capacity, surface pH,drugcontent uniformity, ex vivo adhesion time, bioadhesive strength, folding endurance, in vitro drug release, and drug-exicpient compatibility using FTIR. The in vitro release studies were conducted for silibininfilms in phosphate buffer-pH-6.6 solution.The films were found to be smooth in texture, uniform in thickness, weight, and drug content with acceptable surfacepH. The film formula (F12) containing combination of two polymers PVP: PVA in ratio of 1:3with 0.3%v/v propylene glycol showed good mucoadhesion properties with maximum release of 95% within 4 hours. The diffusion exponent (n) of KrosmeyerPeppas for best formulation was found to be 0.52 which indicates the mechanism of drug release was anomalous transport. Optimized formulation was checked for stability and was found to be stable with expired date about3.6 years. Thus the selected formula can serve as a good candidate for buccal dosage form of silibinin.

Acute Upper Gastro-Intestinal Bleeding; Its Etiology and Management in Karbala: An Epidemiological study

Zahra; a Hamid Kadhim; Rawa; aAzeez Imran; Ayat Sahib Muhammad; Ali Hussain Al-Tai; Riyadh Mustafa Murtadha

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 11-17

Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding is a common medical emergency and potentiallylife threatening condition that needs a prompt assessment and aggressive medical management. To assess the causes, risk factors, and management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleedingin Karbala city; 150 patients (58 females; 92 males) with acute upper gastrointestinal bleedingwere studied during the period of March 2011-March 2012 in Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital. Their age range was (14-89 yr). About 39% of cases were over 60 years old. Peptic ulceration was the commonest cause accounting for 63.3% of cases, followed by acute gastric erosions 18.7%,oesophagealvarices6.7%,and malignant ulcers 4.7%. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ingestion was the most important risk factor for acute upper gastrointestinal bleedingin addition to smoking and H. pylori infection. Co-morbidity was present in about50% of cases. The use of acid lowering agents such as proton pump inhibitors was the mainstay of therapy for patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding followed by H2-antagonist. The mortality rate reported in this study was 5.3%. In conclusion, it appears that the most common cause of acute upper gastrointestinal bleedingis acid peptic disease, which increases with the increasing age, frequent consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, smoking and H. pylori infection. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are effective in decreasing mortality and morbidity.

Body Mass Index (BMI), lipid profile, leptin level and their correlation with Prostate Specific Antigen(PSA) in Iraqi patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

Mohammed M. Mohammed; Manal Khalid Abdulridha; Yassir Mustafa Kamal Al; MullaHummadi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 18-31

Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent problem among older men . There is controversy about the risk factors that contribute to the development and aggravation of BPH, diet and obesity may have a major role in the development of BPH. This study investigate body mass index (BMI) as a marker of obesity, leptin level, and lipid profile in correlation with the prostate-specific antigen PSA in symptomatic BPH Iraqi patients.
Patients and Methods : Randomly selected twenty patients newly diagnosed with BPH visited Baghdad hospital for special surgery, including 10 non-obese patients with BPH,and 10 overweight or obese patients with BPH. Body mass index (BMI ) was calculated and blood samples were drawn to determine fasting blood glucose (FBG) , total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol , serum leptin , and prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
Results : BMI value ,Triglycerides , and serum leptin was significantly higher in overweight or obese patients ( p ˂ 0.05 ),and there was non significant high level of FBG , PSA , total cholesterol compared to non obese ( p ˃0.05 ). Significant lower level of HDL cholesterol was also noticed inobese patients (p ˂0.5 ). In non obese patients, . PSA correlated negatively with BMI,leptin, triglycerides and FBG, positively with total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. While inobesepatients , PSA correlated negatively with BMI, leptin, HDL cholesterol,and FBG .PSA correlated positively with total cholesterol and triglycerides .
Conclusion :In this study , obesity marker like serum leptin ,BMI and triglycerides , was significantly higher in overweight/obese BPH patients compared to non obese,but correlated negatively with PSA (except with triglycerides) . Further research exploring relationship of diet, obesity with prostate cancer and BPH will lead to understanding of the complex inter-relationship.

Effect of Morin on Isoniazid and Rifampicin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Mohammed Mustafa Hashim Zayni; Mohammed Talat Abbas

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 32-39

The first line drugs used for tuberculosis therapy are isonizid and rifampicin (INH
&RIF) and they are associated with hepatotoxicity, for this reason we aimed to study
the protective effect of morin on the hepatotoxicity induced by the tow
antituberculosis agents given together.
To reach study object 24 female Wistar albino rats 220-250 g were divided into four
groups, each group consisted of six animals received standard diet and tab water along
the 21 days which is the experimental period. The control groupleaved without
treatments while the morin group, rats were treated with 30mg/kg/day morin via
gavage along the days of the experiment. INF-RIF group, rats were treated with 100
mg/kg/day INH-RIF by intraperitoneal injection method for 21 days. INF-RIF and
morin group, rats were treated with 100 mg/kg/day INH-RIF plus morin with a dose
of 30 mg/kg /day via gavage along the experimental period.
The results had a significant increase in the activity of alanine aminotransferase,
aspartate aminotransferase and malondialdehyde level and significant decrease in the
activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione s-transferase and
catalase in animal groups treated with INH and RIF as compared to control groups.
However, supplementation of INH-RIF intoxicated rats with morin ameliorated the
antituberculosis drugs adverse effects as evidenced by a significant decrease in
alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase activity and malondialdehyde
level and significant increase in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase,
glutathione s-transferase and catalase. We concluded that morin have a potential to
protect the liver from INH and RIF toxicity.

Protective Effect of Terfeziaclaveryi Extract on Gentamicin-Induced oxidative stress in Rats

Mohammed Mustafa HashimZayni

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 40-50

Gentamicin is one of the commonly use antibiotic for gram negative spectrum, and this drug is associated with nephropathy this due to the formation of reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study to evaluate the ability of Terfeziaclaveryi extract fortreatment the oxidative stress induced by using gentamicin. To reach our object 24 rats were divided in to four groupsall of themreceived water and standard diet while the treatment of the control groups were placebo treatments, the Gentamicin group received the drug with a ratio of 100mg/kg for 8 days, Terfeziaclaveryi group received oral dose of extract with a ratio of 250 mg/kg for the same period, the last group which is GentamicinTerfeziaclaveryi;received drug with a ratio of 100mg/kg and in the same time received oral dose of extract with a ratio of 250 mg/kg for 8 days. The results show significantly increase in serum urea and creatininewhich is associated with histopathologicaldamage of the kidney tissue'sarchitecturedue to the administration of the gentamicin and this increase or damage is positively correlate with concentrations of the kidney MDA and negative correlation with the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase on the kidney tissue homogenate, this modulation of the biological parameter histological damage is significantly neutralized by the administration of the Terfeziaclaveryi extract, from which we can conduct that administer of the Terfeziaclaveryi extract reduce the toxicity and damage caused by the gentamicin.
Key words: Terfeziaclaveryi, gentamicin, oxidative stress

Synthesis of novelN-{5-(2,2-Dimethylisopropylidenyl)thio-1,3,4-thiadiazolyl}-N-acetyl-amino-(4-(N-Dimethylamino)benzyl –amino Barbituric Acid

Fadhel; OmranEssa; kadhumJwad AL-Hmdani; Abbas; Ali .Drea

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 51-64

5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol (1) was reacted with4-(N-dimethylamino)benzaldehyde in refluxing ethanol to give Schiff base 5-{[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino}-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol (2) .Compound (2) was reacted with Acetylchloridein dry benzene to giveN-{chloro[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]methyl}-N-(5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)acetamide(3) the reaction of compound (3) with quindinehydrochloridin ethanol to gave N-{5-mercapto(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) }-amino-N-acetyl -4-(N-dimethyl amino benzyl) guanidine (4)
Compound(4)was reacted with dimethylmalonate in ethanol to afford N-{ 5-mercapto(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2yl)}-amino-N-acetyl -4-(N-dimethylaminobenzyl)aminobarbituric acid (5), these compounds were reacted with 2,2-dimethyl-4-[(phenylsulfonyl)methyl]-1,3-dioxolane in dioxane to give N-{5-(2,2-Dimethylisopropylidenyl)thio-1,3,4-thiadiazolyl}-amino-N-acetyl -(4-(N-Dimethylamino)benzyl –amino barbituric Acid(6)
The prepared compounds were identified by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods :FT-IR,UV-visible and 1HNMR for compounds (4-6)

Evaluation of Serum Zinc Level in Patients with Chronic Telogen Effluvium in Premenopausal Adult Females in Kirkuk City

Khudhair A.Khudhair; Wisam S. Najem; Esra H.Awni

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 65-72

Chronic telogen effluvium (CTE) was defined as a primary idiopathic disease entity in 1996. Women suffering from CTE present with an abrupt onset of generalized shedding of telogen hair from the scalp, with or without an identifiable trigger that persists for more than 6 months. Therefore this study is conducted to detect the association of serum zinc with CTE. The study included one hundred adult menstruating female patients with age ranged between 18-49 years, complaining of hair loss from the scalp and fifty ages matched healthy female controls. Both groups were evaluated for serum zinc levels. There was strong statistically significant reduction (p= 0.01) in the level of serum zinc in patients compared to that in control group.This indicating that there is a definite association between decreased serum zinc levels and CTE in adults menstruating females.

Synthesis and Chemico-Biological Studying of Various Organic Compounds

Nagham Mahmood Aljamali; Hameeda Eedan Salman

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 73-84

In this work ,synthesis of variety of organic compounds [1-6] such as thiol compound , oxazepine (oxazepam) ,diazepine (diazepam) ,macrocyclic Schiff base ,azo compound which contains electron donating group and azo compound is containing electron with drawing group and identification of their structures by {(C.H.N) microanalysis , 1H-NMR spectra and (FT-IR) – spectrum } and study of their biological activities , the data obtained give good supported for synthesized compounds[1-6]

Measurement ofmalondialdehyde and glutathione concentration in plasma of male rats that drenched with acrylamide and omega3

Shatha hussien kadhum

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 85-90

Acrylamide has toxic effects on most ofliving body systems ,so in this article we studied the effect of acrylamide on malondialdehyde (MAD) and glutathione (GSH) of male rats that drenched omega3 fatty acids. the results showed that there isasignificant increase p˂0.003 in plasma MDA in fourth group as compared with other groups while this value decreased in second group as compared with the others and this study showed that there isasignificant increased p˂0.0001 in plasma GSH in fourth group as compared with other groups while this value decreased in second group as compared with the others.

Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Community Acquired Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA) in Al-Hilla/ Iraq

Huda H. Al-Hassnawi; Alaa H. Al-Charrakh; JawadK.Al-Khafaj

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 91-102

Out of 301 clinical samples, a total of 46 (15.2%) Staphylococcus aureus isolates were recovered, of which (84.7) were isolated from skin samples, (13%) from both ear and urine, and (2.1%) from sputum.44 (95%) isolates were identified as β-lactam resistant. Out of these isolates, 32(72%) were found in skin samples. All 44 β-lactam resistant isolates were subjected to disk diffusion test (DDT) for detectionthe susceptibility to 17 antibiotics used in the present study. The study showed that S. aureus isolates were resistant to most β-lactam antibiotics, but they were sensitive to imipenem, meropenem and rifampin.The susceptibility tovancomycin was tested using Two-fold agar dilution method. 33(75%) of S. aureus isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin while 11(25%) showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and were identified as Vancomycin intermediate resistant S. aureus (VISA). Out of 44 β-lactam resistant isolates 13(29.5%) isolates were found to be resistant to oxacillin and identified as MRSA as they were resistant to both oxacillin and cefoxitin.Out of 13 MRSA isolates, three isolates were classified as MDR-MRSA, and ten isolates as NMDR-MRSA. All MDR and NMDR were sensitive to vancomycin.

Study the effect of partially purified L-Aspariginase on production perforin concentration of perforin and hemolytic activity from leukemia lymphocyte culture

Najwa Sh. Ahmed; Saad M. Nada; Hayba Q. Younan; Zainib H. A. Al Rikabi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 103-110

This work aimed to study the effect of L Aspariginase isolated from local Withania somnifera plant on the concentration and hemolytic activity of perforin from leukemia lymphocyte cells of patients with (acute lymphocyte leukemia ALL; chronic lymphocyte leukemia CLL, in addition to healthy subjects). Blood samples were collected from 20 leukemic cases (10 ALL and 10 CLL), and the isolation of lymphocyte than proliferation of leukemia lymphocyte culture for detection of the concentration of perforin by ELISA technique and the activity of perforin by hemolytic erythrocyte assay after and before adding of L-Aspariginase. The results, showed an elevation of concentration and hemolytic activity of perforin before adding L-Aspariginase, then decreasing levels after adding L-Aspariginase compared to control.

Measurementof Serum AlbuminbyThree Different Methods

Taghreed; AbdulHameed

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 111-118

In this study ,serum albumin level was determined in 61 blood samples using three different methods ,cellulose acetate electrophoresis (CAE), salt fractionation and bromocresolgreen(BCG) . The values of serum albumin (mean (95% confidence interval)) measured in gm/L by the above methods were 38.95 (1.64) , 38.13 (1.76) and 38.11 (1.8) respectively .There were no significant differences in the level of serum albumin determined by these methods (P≥0.05). Also, these methods showed statistically significant differences in the level of serum albumin determined by these methods (P≤ 0.001) ,As the BCG method give a relatively inaccurate albumin levels in abnormal sera therefore ,it is recommended that the BCG is to be used only as a screening method for serum albumin measurement for its simplicity and rapidity

Synthesis and characterization of new heterocyclic compounds with studying its biological activity

Hilal.M.Abdullah; Ibtisam K.Jassim; Malak N.Safi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 119-135

Reaction of malonic acid di hydrazide (1) with CS2 / KOH then with hydrazine hydrate gave 1,2,4-triazole (2) which was reacted with different substituted benzaldehyde to give Schiff bases derivatives (3-8) respectively. Schiff bases (3-8) were reacted with thioglycolic acid to give thiazolidenones (9-13). Also ,Schiff bases were reacted with glycine to give imidazolidenone (14-18). The prepared compounds were characterized by FT-IR ,1H-NMR ,Uv/vis spectra ,melting points were recorded and the purity was checked through T.L.C.technique. Some of the synthesized compounds were screened for antibacterial activity

Anti-oxidant effect of silymarin against DDT-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

Ali H. Mohammed; Dawser K. Al-Khishali; Nada N. Al-Shawi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 136-144

Background: Oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing for initiation and propagation of renal damage induced by several chemicals such as DDT. Silymarin, the dried extract of the ripe seeds of the plant Silybum marianum is found to be a powerful protective agent against toxin-induced tissue injury in many organs especially the liver by its antioxidant property; accordingly, the intended property needs to be clarified in other organ subjected to toxic chemicals.
Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the possible protective effect of silymarin on the status of oxidative stress by measuring the levels of (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in renal tissue in addition to assessment of the serum levels of urea and creatinine and examination of possible histological renal changes induced in rats by a toxic dose of DDT.
Methods: White albino rats were administered a single oral dose of DDT (100mg/kg) to induce renal toxicity. Silymarin was orally administered twice daily dose (500 mg/kg) for 7-days prior to DDT administration, then the animals were sacrificed 24-hours after DDT-treatment. The parameters of oxidative stress, MDA contents and GSH levels were measured in renal tissue homogenate. Blood was collected for measuring serum urea and creatinine levels, in addition to the histological examination of the kidneys.
Results: Treatment of rats with silymarin for 7-days prior to DDT administration caused a significant reduction in the contents of the lipid peroxidation end product, MDA down to (61%) with the increasing in the levels of GSH levels up to (82%) in renal tissue homogenate compared to DDT-treated animals. Furthermore, silymarin was able to counteract significantly the elevation in the levels of serum urea and creatinine by about 38% and 34%, respectively compared to DDT-treated rats. Sections of rats' kidney treated with silymarin 7 days prior to DDT administration, elicited improvement in the histopathological changes induced by DDT characterized by inhibition of cloudy swelling, inflammation and necrosis.
Conclusion: According to the results obtained from this study, it is conclude that silymarin have antioxidant property through direct and/or indirect mechanism that provide protective effects against DDT-induced nephrotoxicity, and makes it a good candidate to be tried clinically in this respect.

Spectrophotometric determination of Levo-dopa in pharmaceutical preparation via oxidative coupling organic reaction

Alaa . F . Hussein; Muneer . A .AL-Da; amy; Muhammad .H . AL-Fatlawy

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 145-154

A simple, accurate and sensitive colorimetric method for the determination of L-Dopa in pure and pharmaceutical preparations has been established .The proposed method uses 4–aminoantipayrine (4-AAP) as a chromogenic reagent . The method is based on the oxidative coupling reaction of L-Dopa with 4-AAP in the presence of sodium hydroxide as alkaline media to form a red water soluble dye product , that has a maximum absorption at 519 nm . Linearity was observed in the range of (0.20 – 30.00) µ, with molar absorptivity of (0.58×104 ,a sandall sensitivity of (0.36×10-4µ , correlation coefficient of 0.9999 , detection limit (0.12 µ and the relative standard deviation is better than (1.013%) . The method was applied successfully for the determination of L-Dopa in pharmaceutical preparations and the value of recovery % was found ( 99.68 %).

Study ofSeveral Anti oxidants , Total Acid Phosphatase, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Total and Free Prostate-Specific Antigen in Sera of Man with Chronic kidney failure

WesenAdilMehdi; Wiaam Abdul Wahed.AL-Helfee; AshganSlmanDawood

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 155-165

Chronic kidney failure (CKF),is a progressive loss in renal function over a period of months or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are unspecific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experiencing a reduced appetite. Free radicals are formed in all living organisms during normal cell metabolism. Patients with chronic renal failure who are regularlydialyzed are candidates for free radical damage.The current study investigate possible links with total acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase, total and free prostate-specific antigen ,several Antioxidants and an increased risk of prostate disease present in males with chronic kidney failure (CKF). The present study is also to compare these features level among patients [chronic renal failure] undergoing haemodialysisand in control (age and sex matched)therefore, addressed this question by measuring prostatic markers in patients receiving long-term dialysis.Patients were chosen from the patients referred to the Medical City –Kidney Transplant Center, Iraq.The glomerular filtration rate (GFR)has been measure in 45 patients with CKF using haemodialysis method . Laboratory investigations including kidney function, serum urea, creatinine, albumin, S. calcium, S. Phosphorus, total protein, Uric acid, S. potassium, S. Sodium,Hb, in addition to serum total antioxidant capacity(TAC), lipid peroxidation(the level of lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde(MDA)) ,vitamin E, vitamin C and total acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase, total and free prostate-specific antigen had been measured in male with CKF . Blood samples were obtained from the patients and the control group consisted of 25age and sex matched normal healthy individuals who came to the hospital for health checkup.Hemoglobin, Serum urea,creatinine,GFR, S. calcium, potassium,PSA, fPSA, PAP,LH, TAC,MDA, uric acid , vitamin E, vitamin C showed significant difference between the patients and control group. There was a positive correlation in PSA[ng/ml] with TAC (r=0.57, p<0.01), MDA (r=0.60, p<0.01),While PSA correlated negatively with Vitamin E (r=-0.65, p<0.01), Vitamin C (r=-0.57, p<0.01) in the CKF patients while there was no significant correlation was observe in the control group. In this study, a significantly negative association was observed between PAP[IU/L] with TAC (r=-0.63, p<0.01), MDA (r=-0.70, p<0.01),in the CKF patients while there was no significant correlation was observe in the control group. A significant positive correlation was found between PAP[IU/L] , and Vitamin E (r=0.61, p<0.01), Vitamin C (r=0.67, p<0.01).Hemodialysis leads to significant changes in the antioxidant system of the blood of patients with chronic renal failure. Despite an adverse metabolic environment in chronic renal insufficiency, Prostatic disease markers were useful in the routine screening of men receiving long-termdialysis, but the clinicians should be on alert when the dialysis duration increasesthe change in serum anti oxidants that accompanies decline in renal function.

Effect of Effervescent Agents on the Formulation of Famotidine Loaded Sodium Alginate Floating Beads

Nizar A. Jassem; Nawal A. Rajab

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 166-176

Famotidine is histamine H2 receptor antagonist; it is widely used in treatment of gastric ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease. The low bioavailability (40-45%), short biological half life (2.5-4 hrs) of famotidine in addition to have an absorption window, this favor the development of controlled release gastroretentive dosage forms of the drug.
In this study, the floating beads of famotidine by ionotropic gelation technique were formulated in two different combinations such as sodium alginate withhydroxypropyl methyl cellulose(HPMC) and sodium alginate with guar gum. The effect of CO2 gas forming agents such as CaCO3 or NaHCO3 on drug loading, % drug entrapment efficiency, floating properties and invitro drug release were evaluated.
It was found that as the ratio of gas forming agents increased from 0.2 to 1 , the floating property was increased for both type of gas forming agents while % entrapment efficiency of famotidine beads are decreased from 86.11 % to 68.5% for CaCO3 and from 84.3% to 60.7% for NaHCO3 .
Increasing the CaCO3 ratio did not appreciably accelerate drug release as compared with NaHCO3, indicating that CaCO3 is superior to NaHCO3 as gas forming agent in floating beads of famotidine.
On the other hands, beads containing guar gum produce more sustained release of famotidine than that beads containing HPMC.
Furthermore, the release mechanism were investigated and the results indicate that most of the formulations follow Higuchi modelwith non fickian anomalous drug release behavior.

The influence plant spacing on growth and volitle oil quantity and quality of belangu plant ( Lallemantia royleana wall .) as medicinal plant used in traditional medicin in Iraq

Ibrahim S. Abbas; Eman F . Hasan; Abbas M. Kashmar

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 177-182

Field experiment was conducted during winter season of 2010 – 2011 at medicinal plants garden of pharmacy collage of Baghdad University to evaluation the effect of planting spaces between plants on growth parameters and volatile oil quantity and quality .
The results were showed the space at 40cm between plants was gave a highest values of total fresh yield , total dry yield , fresh leaf weight , dry leaf weight and number base of branches per plant were reached to 1187 kgha­¹ , 448.18kgha¬¹ , 518 kgha¬¹ , 216 kgha¬¹ and 25 branche per plant respectively .
The quantity and physical properties of leaf volatile oil also increasing with increasing the planting spaces among plants . The highest values of volatile oil percentage , volatile oil yield per hectar , specific gravity , density and refractive index and these values were reached to 2.75% , 14.24Lha¬¹ , 0.980mg /microliter , 0.941mg/microliter and 1.520degree respectively at 40cm as planting space between plants .

Estimation of uric acid ,urea, creatinine and creatinine clearance in the serum of preeclamptic women

Israa A. MohammedJumaah

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 183-189

Preeclampsia is one of the most frequent complication of pregnancy which manifested by high blood pressure during pregnancy for the first time after 20th weeks of gestation with presence of protein in the urine and the causative is unknown. The aim of this study is to estimate serum urea ,serum creatinine, serum uric acid and creatinine clearance in preeclamptic women for feasibility early detection of preeclampsia and prevention of it. Out of 100 pregnant women 50 of them there blood pressure is normal ( uncomplicated pregnancy) and the other 50 were suffered from preeclampsia. The patients chosen when admitted to general Kirkuk hospital from July 2011 to January 2012 .In all 100 pregnant women serum urea, uric acid ,creatinine and urinary creatinine were measured by enzymatic reaction methods, then creatinine clearance rate was calculated by 24 hrs. urine collection . This study revealed that serum urea ,creatinine, uric acid in preeclamptic group were elevated significantly(p< 0.05) in compared to normotensive pregnant group. The creatinine clearance was lower in preeclamptic women than in normotensive pregnant women, the difference was significant (p< 0.05). 45.33% of pre-eclamptic women had positive past medical history of preeclampsia while 64% of them had positive family history of preeclampsia. This study showed that 62% of pre-eclamptic women were primigrivda.
Conclusion: It is important to asses renal function tests especially serum uric acid for all pregnant women have high blood pressure as it is the first change and denoter for effecting of renal function in preeclampsia cases.

Determination of Methionine Via Chemiluminescence-Continuous Flow Injection Analysis

Issam M.A. Shakir; Nagam Shakir Turkey; Raad Faleh Hassan

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 190-204

The research work represent a fast and simple method for the determination of methionine using chemiluminescence for the methionine-sodium hydroxide-luminol for the generation of a chemiluminesecent derivative of luminal. The emission was measured by continuous flow analysis made sample size of 83µL was used.
Response versus concentration extended from 0.2-20 mM.L-1 with a percentage linearity of 96.17% or with 99.17% percentage of linearity for the range 0.6-20 mM.L-1. Reaching to a L.O.D. at (S/N=3) for 5 µM.L-1 from the gradual dilution for the minimum concentration in the calibration graph with a repeatability of less than 0.5% (n=10). A comparison was made between the new developed method with the classical method for the spectrophotometric determination by coupling with paired t-test or F-test and found that there is no significant difference between the two methods and the new adapted method which can be used as an alternative method.