ISSN: 7027-2221

Volume 3, Issue 3

Volume 3, Issue 3, Winter 2012, Page 1-275


A Comparative Clinical Study of Effects of Monotherapy with Oral Captopril and Lisinopril on Intraocular Pressure of Glaucomatous Patients

Adeeb Ahmed Al-Zubaidy

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 1-13

Background: Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity has been demonstrated in aqueous humor and other ocular tissues. Coincidence of glaucoma with hypertension or heart failure, the main indications of ACE inhibitors is not uncommon particularly in adults.
Aim of Study is to explore the initial response of intraocular pressure (IOP) to short courses of oral captopril and lisinopril in both normal volunteers and glaucomatous patients.
Patients & Methods: This study included 60 subjects with normal blood pressure whom assigned to receive either captopril tablets (12.5 mg twice daily) or lisinopril tablets (10 mg once daily) for 4 successive days. Each group included 15 volunteers (with normal IOP) and 15 glaucomatous patients (with open angle glaucoma). IOP and blood pressure were measured at pre-treatment, and then after 1, 3, and 4 days of treatment.
Results: Captopril-induced decrement in mean IOP of normal volunteers was highly significant with percentages ranged 4.1-6.6 % (right eyes) and 0.4-4.6 % (left eyes). Percentages of decline in mean IOP of glaucomatous patients ranged from 3.7-7.4 % (right eyes) and 1-9.2 % (left eyes) but statistically, such decrements were variable in significances along the days of captopril treatment.
Lisinopril-induced decrement in mean IOP of normal volunteers was found statistically variable in significances with percentages ranged 3.2-8.9 % (right eyes) and 1.7-5 % (left eyes). Although it was statistically variable in glaucomatous patients' right eyes with percentage ranged from 1.4-6.3 %, the decline in mean IOP of their left eyes was highly significant throughout the trial period and its percentage ranged 4.7-8.7 %.
Conclusions: Each of oral captopril and lisinopril has an initial ocular hypotensive effect and thus might be preferred in treatment of patients with arterial hypertension who are vulnerable to or with raised IOP.

Synthesis and characterisation of Nano- La2NiO4+δ with potential applications as antimicrobial coatings.

A. H. Al-Yasari; P.R. Slater

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 14-22

In this paper, the K2NiF4 system, La2NiO4+δ, has been analysed for potential photocatalytic activity for destruction of organic pollutants under low intensity UV light, with methyl orange used as model pollutants. The La2NiO4+δ, was shown to have promising photocatalytic activity. In addition, there was also evidence for catalytic decomposition of methyl orange in the dark, most likely due to a redox process, although further work is required to confirm this. The results show that the nanoLa2NiO4 samples prepared by sol-gel method have better photocatalytic activity than La2NiO4 prepared by solid state method since the sol-gel method produces a smaller particles sizes comparing to the solid state method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), and The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) were used for surface characterizations.

Epidemiological and Biological Variability in Clinical Isolates of Trichomonasvaginalis among Women in Najaf/ Iraq,

Jasim Hameed Taher

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 23-33

In order to monitor changes in the prevalence of Trichomonasvaginalis infection, the records of 4992 female patients complaining from vaginal discharge attending the hospitals and the private laboratories in Najaf/ Iraq in the period 1999-2008 were reviewed. Of these 259 (5.188%) were positive. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection has increased significantly over the reviewed years from 3.004% in 1999 to 7.066% in 2008 (P < 0.01). There is an intraspecific variation among different isolates obtained from parasite by enzyme electrophoresis, and there are 16 isolates examined fell in eight groups (zymodems) according to the enzymes (Malate dehydrogenase, Malic, Glucose phosphate isomerase, Glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase and Phosphoglucomutase) patterns, andthis possibly may suggest that there is more than one strain of T. vaginalis in Najaf province.

Antibacterial activity of Schiff base complex in vitro

Hassan Ali Al-Saadi; Muthana Nahidh Al-Ghanimi; Zahraa Hassan Ali Al-Saadi; Asawer Asaad Al-Zabad

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 34-39

Schiff base was prepared by adding (5-(4-Methoxy phenyl azo)-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde) to ethanolic solution and o-aminobenzioc acid, Ni (II) Schiff base complex derived from Schiff base and Ni(II) salt were refluxed . The physical properties were studied. Infrared of Schiff base and the complex were measured. The Ni(II) Schiff base complex have been also tested for their antibacterial activities against several human pathogenic bacteria in vitro .The bacterial species tested included: Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pyogenes and Gram-negative, Escherichia coli , Enterobacter aerogenes , Vibrio cholerae, Proteus mirabilis , Salmonella typhi , Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

The Relationship between Serum Aluminum Level and some neurological diseases in Human

H. A. Jabbar; S. H. Al-Nasir; K. A. Khedhair

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 40-43

This study was performed to explorealuminium exposure in healthy individuals, andoccupa- tionally exposed populations compared with neurological diseases patients. The results indicate that a significant differences were found between aluminium concentration in sera of healthy individuals compared with occupationally exposed populations (p<0.01). No significant difference(p>0.05) was observed in occupationally exposed populations compared with Parkinson's disease victims. Serum aluminium levels were much higher in Alzheimer's disease victims compared with aluminiumplan-ts workers (p<0.01). The results indicate that aluminium is not a risk factor to healthy non-ccupati-onally exposed populations, while the adverse effects were observed in occupationally exposed populations, and neurological disease victims.

Isolation and characterization of bone marrowmesenchymal stem cells from rat and rabbit; a modified method

Limes HusamAlmanseekanaa; Ali MansoorJasim; RaedHamzah Mohammed

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 44-51

Bone marrow MSCs were obtained from New Zealand White rabbits (~3 kg, male) and also from white rat (Ratusratus) by the Guideline for Animal Care and use Committee for Teaching and Research using a modified procedure (1,2) Briefly, after the animals was sacrified with carbon monoxide cabinet, tibias and femurs were excised and the bone marrow was extracted under sterile conditions.The collected marrow was mixed and dispersed with PBS. After that the (MSCs) were separated by density-gradient centrifugation over ficoll. Viability of the separated MSCs was determined via trypan blue staining technique. Then, cells were seeded into ten tissue culture flasks containing complete culture medium suplimented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and antibiotics, incubated at 370C in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2. Once the colonies reached 80–90% confluence, they were ready to be detached with trypsin/EDTA and suspended in medium for continuous culture

Evaluation of urinary secretary immunoglobulin (sIg) level in diabetic patients at Karbala city

SalimHussien Hassan Al-Greti

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 52-56

This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTI) and measure the levels of urinary secretaryimmunoglobulin (sIg) in diabetic patients during the period from January until November 2009. A study was included ( 64) patients with diabetes mellitus (D.M.) and (30 person diagnosed by clinician as UTI without diabetes mellitus) as control. From both groupsurine samples were collected, general urine examination (GUE),countof pus cells, urine culture for bacterial isolates and measured the levelof urinary sIg. Results shows out of (64) diabetic patients, pyuria>10 pus cells/high power field was present in( 39/64, 60.9%) cases. Out of these (39) cases, positive urine culture was seen only in (22, 56.4%) cases. Overall frequency of UTI was (34.44%) and the commonest microorganism isolated was E.coli (45.5%). Also result shows decreased significantly (p<0.01) of urinary sIg levels in D.M patients as compared with control subjects.

Comparison between The chemical components of kidney stone between Males and Females

Haider Naji Kudhair; Salih Mahdi Haddawi; Sahib Ali Mahdi AL-Atrakchi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 57-63

The present investigation was designed to qualitative analysis of renal calculi. Twenty-eight calculi were obtained from (8) females and (20) males afflicated with nephrolithiasis. Their ages ranged from (7-60) years. Also Qualitative assay of renal stone appeared higher percentages uric acid , calcium, oxalate, phosphours and ammonium in calculi of males when compared with that of females.

Purification and characterization of uricase enzyme produced fromPseudomonas aeruginosa 7

Sahib Ali Mahdi Al-Atraqchi; Etab Abdul Ameer Al-Mosawi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 64-76

uricase enzyme was partially purified from culture filtrate of P. aeruginosa 7 by two steps :
Precipitation with ammonium sulfate 70 % saturation and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE – Cellulose . uricase was purified by 7.2 fold with yield 43.79 % .
Uricase showed optimum pH (8.5 – 9) and pH stability was in the range of (8 – 9.5) . the temperature optimum of uricase enzyme was 35 Co .and the thermostable for uricase enzyme to observe that the enzyme was retain reserved by perfect activity at (25 – 40) Co and for 20 min.
The kinetic of uricase enzyme that representation by Km and Vmax was investigation and to be whole estimation by followed by three method , the rang value of Km was reached to 0.0091 mg / ml . However the Vmax was reached to 6.68 µM / ml . min. , by using the uric acid as a substrate.
The effective of some metal ion was studied and the result showed that the NiCl , AgCl2 and HgClare inhibiters , inaddition to that using 1 mM from FeCl2 cause to lose 88.93 % from enzyme activity. Whereas NaCl enhance the enzyme activity that reached to 216.448 % at 1 mMconcentration , Mgcl2 ,CaCl2 were consider enhancer to the enzyme activity at concentration of 5mM and the residue activity was reached to(170.35 and129.62)% respectively .

Study on trace element concentration in hair, blood and urine of roadways cleaners workers in Kerbala city .

Weiam.Ali.A; SawsanHassan.K; Al atrakchi Sahib

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 77-85

Trace metals in biological samples namely hair , blood and urine were examined in roadways cleaners workers exposed to Pb. Hg, Ni, Cuand Crmetals and in controls group.The significant levels exposed and unexposed subjects in hair , blood ,and urine have been computed by student test at p<0.05 statistical analysis data showed through the connection relation ship between the two groups (test and control ) ,element (Ni, Cu, Hg) non- significant , except (Cr, Pb)significant for the models hair. The serum samples showed a statistical analysis data asignificantrelation ship for (Cr, Pb, Ni), except (Cu, Hg) non- significant models urine sample the statistical analysis data showed asignificant relation ship (Cr, Hg, Cu, Ni)and non- significant for the lead .The behavior has been explained in context to the type of exposure and the periods of exposure for each element .
This study has shown that among cleaner workers ,the blood lead level below thane WHO permissible exposure limite(40 mg/dl for men)

New approach development for determination of chlorpromazine HCl in pure and pharmaceutical forms using homemade wave length selector flow injection photometer

Issam M.Shakir Al-Hashimi; Mohammed jassim hamzah Al-Kaffije

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 86-97

A simple , accurate and fast method for determination of chlorpromazine HCl in pure and drug formulations by continuous flow injection spectrophotometric was developed. The method was based on the oxidation of the drug with sodium persulphate to pinkish-red species and the same species was determined using homemade Ayah3Sx3-3D-solar flow injection photometer. Optimum conditions were obtained using the high intensity green light Emitted Diod as source . A 180µl was taken as a reasonable sample volume for the determination of drug in pure and pharmaceutical formulation. The optimum conditions reached were 1ml/min flow rate (10mmole.L-1) for sodium persulphate and 15seconds allowed time for injection. The linear dynamic range for the instrument response versus chlorpromazine HCl concentration was 0.05-0.6 mmole.L-1 while the L.O.D was 64.8nM/sample from the stepwise dilution for the minimum concentration of lowest concentration in the linear dynamic range of the calibration graph . The correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9959 while the percentage linearity (%r2) was 99.19% . R.S.D% for the repeatability (n=5) was < 1.5% for the determination of chlorpromazine HCl with concentrations of 0.15 and 0.18 mmole.L-1 . The method was applied successfully for the determination of chlorpromazine HCl in pharmaceutical preparation . Using paired t-test it was shown that there were no significant difference between the proposed method and official method and on that basis the new method can be accepted as an alternative analytical method.

A novel method for isolation new strain of E. coli ( resist for cloxacillin acillin and sensitive to Ampicillin. ) and other strain(sensitive for Cloxacillin acillin and resist to Ampicillin.) and check it's transformation with isolated plasmid and it's stability by serial plating method

Mohammed Abdul Rahmman Mohammed

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 98-106

Bacterial strains ( E. coli ) were collected from two different places , The first strain was collected from central Laboratory – Baghdad university , meanwhile the second strain was collected from pathogenic laboratory – Baghdad university
Replica plating and gradient plate method technique were used to prepare strains with different multi trails
Replica plating was used to select strain resist to specific antibiotic with low concentration ( sensitive for other type of antibiotic ) then go head subsequently with gradient plate method to adapt the strain to resist (high concentration )
Replica plating was used to select first strain resist to Ampicillin. ( 100 Mg- ml ) and ( sensitive to Cloxacillin ..) then gradient plate method was used to adapt first strain to resist Ampicillin. (500 Mg-ml ) therefore. first strain was resistant to Ampicillin. ( 500 Mg- ml ) and sensitive to Cloxacillin (500 Mg- ml ) , on other hand ,by using same methods , second strain was resistant to Cloxacillin ( 500 Mg- ml ) and sensitive to Ampicillin.. (500 Mg- ml ) Replica plating was used to select third strain sensitive to Ampicillin. and Cloxacillin .( 500 Mg- ml ) for each type of antibiotics and it is consider as competent cell . To visualize if ( Ampicillin. resist trail and Cloxacillin resist trail ) carried on plasmid , first , second and third strains were transformed by using transformation technique
The Transformant strain was resistant to ( 1000 Mg- ml ) by which resist to Ampicillin. and Cloxacillin . (500 Mg –ml ) for each antibiotic .
The efficiency of transformation was determined as percentage of transformation , it was so high a round ( 9% )
The Transformant strain was checked for stability of it's plasmid by using sub – culturing method . It was stable for 12 times of sub culturing of transformant growth
Concentration of the protein for E. coli ( resist for cloxacillin and sensitive to Ampicillin. ) and other strain(sensitive for Cloxacillin acillin and resist to Ampicillin.) was 0.065 and 0.116 meanwhile transformant was 0.190
Finally , . using replica plating , gradient plate and transformation process consider as a novel technique to prepare strains with multi trails which resist very high concentration of antibiotics and
efficient transformation process

FI - Spectrophotometric Determination of PropranololHydrochloric in pharmaceutical preparations

Muneer- A- AL -Da; amy

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 107-116

A batch and flow injection spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of propranololhydrochloride in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method based on the diazotization of 4-amino-6-chlorobenzene-1,3-di sulfonamide and followed by coupling with propranolol hydrochloride in the presence ofsodium hydroxide to form orange soluble dye that has a maximum absorption at 490 nm. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameter are evaluated. A graph of absorbance versus concentration shows that Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of (0.25 – 10.00µg/ml) and from (1.20 – 48.00µg/ml),with a limit of detection(signal / noise =3) of 0.145µg/mland 0.640µg/ml.The correlation coefficient was 0.9997 and 0.9998 by batch and FI procedure respectively. The method was applied successfully for the determination of propranolol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations. The relative standard deviation was better than 0.79 % (n=10) .

Simple Artificial OralCavity Model for in vitroEvaluation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets

Mowafaq Mohammed. Ghareeb

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 117-128

Many patients who have problems in swallowing of solid dosage forms may benefit the Orodispersible tablets,where they rapidly disintegrate and dissolve in the oral cavity. Yet, there is no official and reproducible in vitro test that can predict the disintegration time. The present study was designed to evaluate a novel in vitro model for evaluation of disintegration time of the orodipersible tablets.A novel simple apparatus was prepared to simulate the oral cavity known as MG apparatus; it consists mainly of adult dental set with saliva input reservoir and digital monitoring. To validate the MG apparatus, nine blank orodispersible tablets were prepared using different concentrations of four superdisintegrants, in addition one of them prepared under different compression forces as well as subjected to stress storage condition (50°C/75%RH for 2weeks). Also, five commercial orodispersible tablets were used to comparebetween the saliva and buffer as disintegration media. Moreover, sixteen volunteers were participated in human sensory tests for disintegration. The results indicate that there is a very high correlation between the novel in vitro disintegration test using the new method (MG apparatus) and the in vivo disintegration using human sensory test; while poor correlation was reported with the conventional method. In conclusion, thenovelMG method is simple and highly correlated with the in vivo method and might be of value to predict disintegration time for orodispersible solid dosage forms.

Role of Some medical plants in reduce of Headache attacks Patients are classified according of blood groups in Karbala.

Hadeel Khalaf

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 129-135

Migraine syndrome which have effective connection with active blood circulation in this search 150 patient divided to 4 groups according to type of blood groups The Significant increase were found at 0.01 between the 4 groups and the same significant increase were found at 0.05 between male and female while the male more than the male due to the effect of female hormone . The Result were refered to no significant effect of Oinum ,garlic, Salix and ginkgo were give significant effects in decreased attack of headache migraine

Phytochemical Study of some Flavonoids Present in theFruit Peels of Citrus reticulata Grown in Iraq.

Ali Rahman Jasim

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 136-151

Citrus reticulata (Tangerine) of the familyRutaceaeis widely growing in Iraq, Literature survey reveal that there was no phytochemical study concerning C.reticulatafruitpeelsin Iraq. Flavonoids from citrus genus have been of particular interest because of their broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiatherogenic properties. Therefore, the isolation and characterization of flavonoids fromC. reticulata fruit peels will lead to new applications of the byproducts from citrus juice processes and other citrus consumption in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products. Literature survey also reveal that C.reticulata fruitpeels were widely used by the ancients for treatment of different kinds of diseases; therefore a research on Iraqi C.reticulatafruitpeels will be of important value. This study is concerned with the extraction, identification, isolation& purification of some biologically important flavonoids in Iraqi C.reticulatafruitpeels including:Tangeretin, Nobiletin, Hesperidin&Quercetin.Extraction was carried out by two methods includingSoxhlet apparatus&Maceration.Two flavonoids which are Tangeretin &Nobiletin were isolated, purified& quantitatively estimated while Hesperidin&Quercetin were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC) & this identification was further augmented by using High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The identification of the isolated compounds (Tangeretin &Nobiletin) was done by measuring the melting point (M.P.), TLC where different solvent systems had been used, HPLC& infrared spectroscopy (IR). The most suitable extraction & identification methods were fully described in this study. This study confirms the presence of Tangeretin, Nobiletin, Hesperidin&Quercetin inthe fruit peels of C.reticulata grownin Iraq, these compounds have important medicinal & therapeutic values that are mentioned in this study. The percentages of Tangeretin &Nobiletin werehigher in the extract obtained by soxhlet apparatus than that obtained by maceration.

Synthesis of Some 1 ,3 ,4- Oxadiazole and 1,2,4-Triazole Derivatives and Evaluation the Antibacterial Activity

Gazwan H. Al-Somaidaie; Fawzi H. Al-Obaidy; Shaymaa H. AL-Jebory

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 152-166

Some of hydrazone derivatives[2a-e] were prepared from the reaction of 2-phenyl acetic acid hydrazide[1] with different substituted benzaldehydes, then cyclization of hydrazones in glacial acetic acid and lead dioxide resulted into the formation of new 1,3,4-Oxadiazole derivatives [3a-e], Symmetrical 4-amino Triazole derivatives [5a-e] were prepared from reaction of 3,5-dibenzyl-4-amino 1,2,4-Triazole[4] with different substituted benzaldehydes to product new series of different Schiff bases [5a-e]. The prepared compounds were characterized by FT-IR, and UV spectroscopy, the melting points were determined and the purity and reaction time was checked by TLC, the biological activity was evaluated against different types of bacteria.

New photometric method for the determination of methyl dopa via it is oxidation through periodate using Ayah 3Sx3-3D-solar micro FI photometer. Study &application

Issam M.A.Shakir AL-Hashimi; Mohammed Jassim Hamzaha AL-Kaffiji

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 167-181

A newly photometric analytical method characterized by it is speed and sensitivity was developed for the determination of methyl dopa in pure and pharmaceutical samples via its oxidation to orange-reddish colored complex through periodate reaction in alkaline media using homemade Ayah 3Sx3-3D-solar FI photometer . The orange-reddish species was determined using super bright green light emitting Diod (LED) as a source . A 230µl was taken as a reasonable sample volume for the determination of drug in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The optimum conditions were1.4ml/min flow rate for both of sodium periodate(5mmole.L-1) and sodium hydroxide (1mmole.L-1) while allowed time for injection was 12 seconds. The linear dynamic range for the instrument response versus methyl dopa concentration was 0.1-1.4 mmole.L-1 while the L.O.D was 0.377nM/230µl sample from the stepwise dilution for the minimum concentration of lowest concentration in the linear dynamic range of the calibration graph . The correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9975 while the percentage linearity (%r2) was %99.52 . The method was applied successfully for the determination of methyl dopa in pharmaceutical preparations . Using paired t-test it was shown that there was no significant difference between the proposed method and official method and on that basis the new method can be accepted as an alternative analytical method.

Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Lipid Profiles In Normal Subjects.

MOHAMMED TALAT ABBAS; Mohammed-F-AL-KOTOBE

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 182-191

Fasting during Ramadan is a religious duty for all healthy adult muslims, fasting is abstention from food and drink from sunset to down.The study was conducted on the undergraduate students and officers of the College of Medicine, College of Pharmacy and College of Engineering ,University of Tikrit.Twenty five apparently healthy students volunteered participated in the study. Their ages ranging from (18-50) years. Serum lipid profile were measured for this group.The investigations were done in the laboratories of Tikrit Teaching Hospital from Oct .to Nov.2004. Average duration of the fasting was about 12 hours and maximum ambient temperature ranged from 10-12 C. The study was conducted in three trails. The first trial during a period extending up to one week before Ramadan fasting, the second trail during the 7,8,9th days of Ramadan fasting, the third trail during the 7,8,9th days of Ramadan fasting ,the third trail during 27,28,29 th days of Ramadan fasting. During each trail five ml of blood was collected from vein by a disposable syringe and centrifuged (centrifuge 1500 r/min) and serum kept in deep freeze at -20C for biochemical analysis( lipid profile).The instrument used for the determination of lipid profile is the spectrophotometer .There was a non significant decrease in concentration of serum cholesterol at the beginning of Ramadan as compared to pre-ramadan values and there was a non significant increase in concentration of serum cholesterol at the end of Ramadan as compared to pre-ramadan values.There was a non significant decrease in concentration of serum triglycerides at the beginning of Ramadan as compared to pre-Ramadan values and there was a significant decrease in concentration of serum triglyceride at the end of Ramadan as compared to pre-Ramadan values.There was a non significant decrease in concentration of serum VLDL at the beginning of Ramadan as compared to pre-Ramadan values and there was a significant decrease in concentration of VLDL at the end of Ramadan as compared to pre-Ramadan values.There was a non significant decrease in concentration of serum LDL at the beginning of Ramadan as compared to pre-ramadan values and there was a significant increase in concentration of serum LDL at the end of Ramadan as compared to pre-Ramadan values.There was a significant decrease in concentration of serum HDL at the beginning of Ramadan as compared to pre-ramadan values and there was a significant decrease in concentration of serum HDL at the end of Ramadan as compared to pre-Ramadan values.There was a non significant decrease in body weight at the end of Ramadan as compared to pre-Ramadan values

The Effect OF Fasting In Ramadan On Some Serum Parameters Of Apparently Normal Subjects

MOHAMMED TALAT ABBAS; Mossa Mahmoud MARBUT

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 192-200

Fasting during Ramadan is a religious duty for all healthy adult muslims, fasting is abstention from food and drink from sunset to down.The study was conducted on the undergraduate students and officers of the College of Medicine, College of Pharmacy and College of Engineering ,University of Tikrit.Twenty five apparently healthy students volunteered participated in the study. Their ages ranging from (18-28) years. Blood sugar, serum calcium, parathyroid hormones, serum phosphate and body weight were measured for this group.The investigations were done in the laboratories of Tikrit Teaching Hospital from Oct .to Nov.2004.Average duration of the fasting was about 12 hours and maximum ambient temperature ranged from 10-12 C.The study was conducted in three trails. The first trial during a period extending up to one week before Ramadan fasting, the second trail during the 7,8,9th days of Ramadan fasting, the third trail during the 7,8,9th days of Ramadan fasting ,the third trail during 27,28,29 th days of Ramadan fasting..There was a non significant decrease in concentration of blood glucose at the beginning of Ramadan as compared to pre-ramadan values and there was a non significant increase in concentration of blood glucose at the end of Ramadan as compared to pre-Ramadan values..There was a non significant increase in concentration of serum PTH at the beginning of Ramadan as compared to pre-Ramadan values and there was anon significant decrease in concentration of serum PTH at the end of Ramadan as compared to pre-Ramadan values. There was a significant decrease in concentration of serum Ca at the beginning of Ramadan as compared to pre-Ramadan values and there was a significant increase in concentration of Ca at the end of Ramadan as compared to pre-Ramadan values. There was a non significant increase in concentration of serum P at the beginning of Ramadan as compared to pre-Ramadan values and there was no change in the concentration of serum Pi at the end of Ramadan as compared to pre-Ramadan values. There was a non significantdecrease in body weight at the end of Ramadan as compared to pre-Ramadan values . The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood sugar ,PTH,Ca ,Pi and body weight.

Duplex PCR primers for detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA directly from gastric biopsy samples

Hassan M. Abu-Almaali; Hadi A. Al-Khatabi; Hassan A. Nasr-Allah; Zahra M. Al-Khafaji

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 201-212

In order to avoid PCR inactivation because of nucleotides variability in primers annealing sites in template DNA molecules and confirmation the presence of medically important bacterium Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy samples with high accuracy, relatively low cost and easily, several primers pairs analyzed for duplexing capacity. One of 16s ribosomal RNA gene, and one of glmM (UreC) gene of this bacterium have duplexing capacity. Those primers are designed separately to detect the presences of H. pylori with high efficiency. Dimerization analysis resulted in allowable degree to use in duplex PCR, and the laboratory results confirmed applicability of this hypothesis. The present study concluded that the combination of these two primers is suitable for accurately detection of these bacteria directly from gastric biopsy specimens.
Specialty: Molecular Microbiology, Computational biology

Synthesis and characterization of some new of thiazolidine ,1,2,4-triazole ,1,3,4-thiadiazole , semicarbazide , oxazoline and a study of their biological activity

Ibtisam K. Jassim; Wissam Kh. Jassim; Salwa Abd ALsatar; Abdulla H.Mohammed

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 213-222

New compounds of oxalic acid dihydrazide [2], bis –[1-phenyl-4-(formyl) thiosemicarbazide [3], bis [5-(biphenyl)-2-(acid hydrazide )-3-N-phenyl-4-(hydroxyl) thiazolidine [4] , bis –[5-mercapto-3-yl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole [5] , bis –[5-(phenylamino)-2-yl-1,3,4-thiazole ] [6], bis [1-phenyl-4-(formyl) semicarbazide [7], bis –[5-(biphenyl)-2-(acid hydrazide )-3-N-phenyl-2-(hydroxyl)oxazoline [8] and bis –[5-hydroxy-4-phenyl-3-yl-1,2,4-triazole [9] have been synthesized. The structures of these compounds were identified by FT-IR spectra and checked by TLC. Some of these compounds were tested against bacteria , Escherchia coli and Staphococcus aureus

Synthesis and characterization of some New Mannich bases and their thione derivatives .

Muhannad A.Mahmood; Ruaa M.Dedan; Wissam K.Jassim; Sahar T.Aday

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 223-233

N,N'-methylenebis(N-phenylacetamide), N-((2,3-dioxoindolin-1-yl)methyl)-N-phenylacetamide, 2-amino-3-(1-((N-phenylacetamido)methyl)-1H-indol-3-yl) propanoic acid, 2-amino-3-(1-((N-phenylacetamido)methyl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanoic acid, and N-((1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)methyl)-N-phenylacetamide were prepared by the condensation of acetanilide with paraformaldehyde and secondary amines, and were found to react with phosphours penta sulphide to give N,N'-methylenebis(N-phenylethanethioamide), N-((2,3-dithioxoindolin -1-yl)methyl)-N-phenylethanethioamide, 2-amino-3-(1-((N-pheny lethan ethioamido)methyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)propanoic acid, 2-amino-3-(1-((N-phenylethan ethioamido ) methyl )-1H-imidazol-5-yl) propanoic acid and N-((1,3-dithioxoisoindolin-2-yl)methyl)-N-phenyl ethane thioamide respectively.
The structures of the prepared compounds (1-10) are characterized by C.H.N.S analysis and FT-IR,1H-NMR (for some of them) spectroscopy ,the melting points are reported and the purity of compounds are checked by T.LC.technique.

Evaluation of Lipid Peroxidation ,Level of Selenium and Enzymatic Antioxidant Activity in Woman During Pregnancy and Abortion at First Trimester

Rana M. Hameed

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 234-240

Background:Spontaneous abortion, or miscarriage, is defined as the loss of a clinically recognized pregnancy that occurs before 20 weeks of gestation; early miscarriage occurs prior to week 12 while late spontaneous abortion occurs between weeks 12 and 20.abortion is the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo .Human chorionic gonadotropin or human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG.) is a glycoproteinhormone produced during pregnancy that is made by the developing embryo after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta). the trace mineral selenium is an essential component of the selenoproteins,.Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a major breakdown product split off from lipid peroxidation and can be used to assess the degree of lipidperoxidation . Glutathione and Glutathione peroxidase (G-PX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are the main enzymes responsible for the detoxification of superoxide anion andrequired for normal health and reproduction. Total antioxidant activity( TAA )its compounds play an important role as ascavenge free radicals such as peroxide, hydroperoxide or lipid peroxyl and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms thatcan lead to pathological conditions like miscarriage
Aim: was to assess whether serum MDA, serum selenium, serum HCG, serum GSH and G-PX, serum total antioxidant TAA , and serum SOD levels altered during early abortions at first trimester and comaper the resulte with healthy pregnant as controls Material/Methods: A group of pregnant women at first trimester gestation age with spontaneous abortion (n=40) and a control group of healthy pregnancies with similar characteristics (n=25) were included. Serum MDA levels, serum selenium, serum HCG, serum GSH and G-PX, serum total antioxidant TAA , and serum SOD levelswere determined and compared among the groups. Results: Characteristics, including maternal age, parity, gestational age, serum total protein, serum albumin, and serum lipid profi le, were similar across the groups. Abortion in first trimester was associated with increased mean serum MDA,GsH levels and theselenium serum concentrations in women with miscarriage were significantly lower as compared to those in women with normal pregnancyandThe glutathione peroxidase activity ,SOD ,TAA, HCG were reduced significantly in women with miscarriage.Conclusions: Increased lipid peroxidation and inhibition of SOD,G-Px ,TAA activity and reduced selenium concentration might be involved in abortions and expulsion of fetoplacental material out of the uterine cavity and may play an important role in the aetrology of spontaneous abortion

Biochemical study on the association of Selenium with hormone of thyroid gland in patients with thyroid disorder

Hassan haider; Alaafrak; Sahib Ali

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 241-245

In this study measured serum triiodothyronine (T3), serum thyroxin], serum thyroid-stimulated hormone (TSH), Selenium (Se) levels in 31 patients with hyperthyroidism, 26 patients with hypothyroidism and 40 control subjects. The concentration of Se was significantly lower than normal in hyperthyroidism and lower than normal in hypothyroidism. There was a negative correlation with TSH, and negative correlation with T3 and negative correlation with T4. The result of this study suggests that the concentration of Se is abnormal in thyroid disease.

Synthesis of new Schiff bases and nucleoside analogues derivatives derived from D- Glucose and their biological activity study

Eman M. Hussain

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 246-259

In this study new derivatives of Schiff bases and nucleoside analogues have been synthesized from the starting material D-glucose after a series of reactions. Derivative 1 was prepared from D-glucose then react with P-bromoacetophenone gave derivative 2 was reacted with dimethyl sulfoxide and acetic anhydride for dehydration a molecule of water gave 3. The spiro ring was prepared at 3-position from the reaction of 3 derivative with 1-phenyl-2 –thioureagave 4 . The protection group at 1 position was removed by using acetic acid fllowed by periodate oxidation to obtain 6. Reaction of 6 with hydrazide derivative at once and dtriazole derivative at another gave 8 and 9 respectively.
Compound 6 was reduced to gave derivative 7. The 1-hydroxylgroup was protected with benzoyl group by using benzoyl chloride to give the derivative 10. Derivative 10 treatment with a mixture of trifluoroacetic anhydride and acetic acid followed by the reaction with trifluoroacetic anhydride gave derivative 11. When derivative 11 treated with silylated uracil derivative the nucleoside analogue 12 was obtained when 11 allowed to react with mercuric theophylline salt in dry xylene, the nucleoside analogue 13 was obtained. The free nucleoside 14 and 15 were obtained when 12 and 13 were allowed to react with sodium methoxide in ethanol respectively. Compounds 8,9,14,15 were exhibited biological activity against E-coli bacteria. Compound 9 exhibited higher degree of activity than the others.
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Synthesis and Priliminary Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of a Series of New Phthalimides and Succinimides Linked to Benzothiazole Moiety

Ahlam Marouf Al-Azzawi; Hiba Kadhum Yaseen

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 260-275

A series of new phthalimides and succinimides linked to benzothiazole moiety were synthesized and followed by their antibacterial screenings. Synthesis of the new imides was performed via two steps, the first one involved preparation of a series of N-(substituted benzothiazole-2-yl) phthalamic and succinamic acids via reaction of phthalic anhydride or succinic anhydride with substituted-2-aminobenzothiazoles.
In the secound step the prepared phthalamic and succinamic acids were dehydrated via treatment with acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate to afford a series of the desirable N-(substituted benzothiazole-2-yl)phthalimides and succinimides. Structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic methods including FTIR, U.V., 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopy and C.H.N analysis.
The synthesized imides were screened for their antibacterial activity against two types of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Eschrichia coli. The new compounds were found to exhibit good to moderate antibacterial activity.