ISSN: 7027-2221

Issue 2,

Issue 2


Preparation and in vitro evaluation of pH sensitive swelling interpenetrating polymer network

a A. Abdul Rassol; Prof. Dr. Ala; Dr. Laith H. Samein; Muqdam M. Mohamad ali

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 1-14

The semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) is a polymer blend consisting of crosslinked polymer network interpenetrated by linear-chain or branched-chain macromolecule. It was developed to impart promising pH sensitive and swelling properties. The casting method was used to formulate pH sensitive semi-IPN using chitosan and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The results revealed that the freeze-dried formulas were swelled to very high extent (up to 57.81 folds within 5min) , while the swelling of the air-dried formula didn’t exceed 13.15 folds. Also increasing proportion of PVP from 1.5 to 4.5 relative to chitosan was accompanied by increasing the folds of maximum swelling of network (from 10.90 to 13.15 folds respectively).

Early usage of Digoxin in bronchopneumonia decrease the need for hospitalization

Mohamed .S. Abdul Rasak; Jameel .H.AL Nakkash

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 15-21

The early usage of digoxin has more beneficial effects when given early in the treatment of bronchopneumonia complicated by congestive heart failure.
Among 400 patients (children 2-5 years old) treated with digoxin , when the early signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure were detected, in addition to Paracetamol ,Ventoline and Erythromycin, 72.5% of patients had good response in the second day of treatment , where as 19% of them have shown good response in the third day, 5% in the fifth day and the others have needed hospitalization (3.5%). ……….So the early usage of digoxin, in patients with bron- chopneumonia complicated by congestive heart failure, decrease the need for hospitalization.

Evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility &rapid urine screening tests in asymptomatic urinary tract infection in pregnant women in Karbala

May Mohamed Ali

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 22-34

Background: Urinary tract infection is a common source of bacterial infections in human and they considered mutually with anemia and hypertension as the most medical complications during pregnancy ,with observe to the point that most of urinary tract infections are asymptomatic in pregnant women and the incidence rate of asymptomatic urinary tract is about 2-13% during pregnancy, this could lead to serious complications such as prematurity ,low birth weight ,hypertension and higher fetal mortality rates if untreated ; urinalysis is one of the important and useful urological tests for diagnosis of such infections, microscopic examination of urine and the dipstick urinalyses (leukocytes esterase test, nitrite test) are common tests used for detecting bacteriuria and pyuria.
Objective: to study the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria by using and evaluation various screening rapid tests of urinalysis, bacterial uropathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in pregnant women attending educational hospital for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Kerbela.
Patients and Method: In this study (480) pregnant woman their mean age 28.3±4.8 ranges (19-39),( apparently healthy without any signs or symptoms of urinary tract infection were included),attended to educational hospital for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Kerbela during the period (MAR-DEC 2010) were investigated for asymptomatic bacteriuria,all urine samples were collected then submitted for routine urinalysis and bacterial culture, Gram’s stain, dipstick and urine microscopy, antimicrobial susceptibility were done using disc diffusion method .
Results: of 480 samples,(27)women (5.6%)showed urine culture results indicating significant bacteriuria, the dominant uropathogens was E.coli 11 (40.71% ,Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin and Nalidixic acid to be the most effective antibiotics; all isolates showed resistance for Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin to be the drug of choice to treat UTIs.
The Gram’s stain was the most specific (98.8%) and sensitive (92.5%) among the rapid tests that had been used, the sensitivity of leukocytes esterase test was 70.3% higher than nitrite test 66.6%while specificity was88.5% which is lower than nitrite test 97.1%, the positive predictive value and negative predictive value for nitrite test were 58%, 97.9% respectively while for leukocytes esterase test record 26.7%, 98% respectively.
The positive predictive value and negative predictive value for Gram’s stain) 83.3%, 99.5%) were higher than that recorded in both nitrite test and leukocytes esterase.
Conclusions:
1-a total of 27 isolates different pathogens were identified among the E.coli was the dominant one, the drugs Ciprofloxacin and Gentamicin Nalidixic acid, were found the most effective against the uropathogens isolates and hence it might be the drug of choice to treat urinary tract infection in pregnant women.
2-Gram’s stain of uncentrifuged urine was observed to be the best among the screening tests which were evaluated and urine culture remained the gold standard for the detection of bacteriuria
3-antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated uropathogens does not show significant differences with some other studies.

Purification of (AST) From Sera of Type П Diabetic Patients

Sayran Sattar Saleh

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 35-41

This study was performed on (35) serum specimen of patients having type 2 diabetes in addition , (40) normal specimens were investigated as control group . The activity of (AST) in diabetic patients was reached to (75.2 ± 11.7) IU/L as compared with normals (19.9 ± 6.1) IU/L . Purification of (AST) from sera of diabetic patients was performed by dialysis and gel filteration (Sephadex G 25) the results of study reveal that Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity of type 2 diabetes patient's serum show ahigh significant increase (p< 0.001) compare to normal subject.

The Role of Interleukines in Asthmatic Patients

Muhamed Salih Mahdi; Hassan A.Al-Saadi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 42-47

Background: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways because body exposure to foreign materials that stimulate immune response characterized by secretion of cytokines from inflammatory cells.
Objective: Diagnosis of asthma to detect about IgE,IL 1B,IL 2IL 8,,IL10 ,and IL12 in patients clinically suspected .
Patients and Methods:50 blood samples out patients were collected in a labeled 5 ml tubes,aged (26 years to 58 years ) were tested by Enzyme Linkined Immuno Sorbant Assay to detect IgE,IL 1B,IL 2IL 8,,IL10 ,and IL12 were carried in Al-Hussein Hospital in Kerbala ,during the period from May to Augest 2010.
Results:50 patients were evaluated for asthma and correlation between IL 1B,IL 2,IL 8,IL 10 ,IL 12 values (20,76,62,44,76)% respectively and IgE value (50)%.Increasing values of IL2,IL 8,IL 10,IL 12 (36,26,24,32)%respectively at ages(37-47)years were led to decreased IgE value(10%),and IL 2,IL 8 values were (24,22)% respectively comparion with IgE(10%).
Conclusions: Importance studying factors( IL 1B,IL 2,IL 8,IL 10 ,IL 12) in diagnosis of Asthmatic patients after clinically diagnosis .

Spectrophotometric determination of Metronidazole via diazotization reaction with p-Hydroxy Benzaldehyde as a coupling reagent

Khalaf Faris Alsamarrai

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 48-58

A New, simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of Metronidazole (MN) has been developed. The method is based on reduction of nitro group of MN to amine group by Zn dust and concentrated hydrochloric acid in hot ethanol under stirring, then the diazonium ion was prepared and coupled with para hydroxyl benzaldehyde (p-HB) to yield Insoluble water yellow dye indicated at 410nm. The linearity of the method was between 5.8×10-5M-52.2×10-5M, the molar absorptivity was 7131.121 L.mol-1.cm-1 and Sandell index was 0.0240µg.cm-2. The method has been successfully applied to the assay of MN in pure and pharmaceutical forms

Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of antimicrobial activity of new sulfonamido and acetamido cyclic imides linked to benzothiazole moiety

Ahmed Saadi Hassan; Ahlam Marouf Al-Azzawi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 59-80

A new series of citraconimides connected to benzothiazole moiety through sulfonamido group have been prepared by multistep synthesis.In the first step two citraconamic acids N-phenyl and N-benzyl citraconamic acids were prepared via reaction of citraconic anhydride with aniline or benzyl amine. Dehydration of the prepared amic acids by fusion or by treatment with acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate in the second step afforded N-phenyl and N-benzyl citraconimides which inturn were treated with chloro sulfonic acid in the third step producing 4- ( N-citraconimidyl ) phenyl sulfonyl chloride and 4-(N-citraconimidyl) benzyl sulfonyl chloride respectively. In the fourth step each one of the two prepared sulfonyl chlorides was introduced in reaction with ten substituted -2-amino benzothizoles producing ten N-(4-(substituted benzothiazole-2-yl) sulfon amido phenyl ) citraconimides and ten N-(4-substituted benzothiazole-2-yl)sulfonamido benzyl) citraconimides. Moreover, a series of new phthalimides and succinimides linked to benzothiazole moiety through acetamido group were synthesized via reaction of 2-chloroacetyl amino benzothiazoles with phthalimide and succinimide. Microbiological activities of the prepared imides against four types of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus , strepto pyogenes , Escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeuroginosa) and candida albicans fungi were evaluated and the results showed that the tested compounds have good antibacterial activity.

Synthesis and characterization of heterocyclic compound derivatives from 2-azo benzothiazole have possible biological activity

Maha.K.Mahmmod; Entesar.O. AL-tememi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 81-96

Reaction of different substi tuents of 2-azobenzothiazolyl 4-phenols (I) with ethyl 2-bromo propionate to produce the derivatives (II) that react with thiosemicarbazide gave N-substituted thiosemicarbazide (III) also react with semicarbazide and which gave N-substituted semicarbazide (IV). The 1,2,4-triazole derivatives (V) and 1,3,4- thiadiazole derivatives (VI) were prepared by the cyclization of N-substituted thiosemicarbazide (III) with base and with concentrated sulphuric acid respectively . The 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives (VII) were prepared by the cyclization of N-substituted semicarbazide (IV) with acid. the new compounds were established on the basis of IR, 1H NMR and UV spectral data.

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis Among comers to marriage in Kerbala governorate

Sajidah Flayyih Hasan

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 97-102

This study was carried out in Kerbala governorate , rates of infection with Toxoplasmosis among comers to marriage who came at immunodeficiency diagnosis center to complete in demand tests for marriage contract were studied by using ELISA IgG antibodies . Total number of diagnostic specimens was 164 (82 males & 82 females ) total prevalence of infection was 25.6% , percent of infection in males ( 32.9% ) was greater than females (18.4%) but there was no significant difference . The age group 30 years old & up demonstrate high percent of infection compare with another age groups with significant difference . This study doesn’t show a relationship between resident location of patient and percent of infection. Most infected individual demonstrate high levels of IgG.

Study of serum interleukin-12 and total serum immunoglobulin-E in relation to bronchial asthma severity in childhood

Sattar jabbar Rahi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 103-110

Bronchial asthma is a major public health concern affecting 100-150 million people worldwide. Elevated total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) is considered as an objective marker of allergy and has been associated with a number of respiratory disorder.Interleukin-12(IL-12) is a key cytokine involved in regulating the balance between TH1and TH2 cells by promoting TH1 response .Reduced capacity to produce this cytokine could lead aberrant TH2 development .The objective in this to find if any correlation between serum IgE level and serum interleukin-12 with severity of bronchial asthma for both the definitive diagnosis and the therapeutic strategy. A total of fifty patients with age 12years and below ( 28 males and 22 females) and twenty five of case controls with matched age and sex were randomly selected from apparently healthy individuals from January to June of 2010 who were attending the outpatient department in Kerbala teaching pediatrics hospital with symptoms suggestive of bronchial asthma .The patients who were not on any anti asthma medication in previous one week were included in the study. Blood sample was taken from each patient at time of attending , sera were separated and kept frozen at -200C until used .Serum interleukin -12 and total IgE levels were done by solid phase enzyme –linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A significant decrease of serum levels of IL-12 was found in bronchial asthmatic children compared with normal controls .This significant decrease of IL-12was observed in sever asthmatic patients compared with mild and moderate cases. However there is increase of mean serum total IgE in bronchial asthmatic children compared to healthy control groups .mean serum IgE levels were increased as the severity of asthma increased . The present study suggested that the increased serum total levels IgE in bronchial asthmatic patients beside decreasing the serum interleukin-12 could be considered as a key component in bronchial asthma pathogenesis and hence their therapeutic manipulation may be help in bronchial asthma management.

Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Several New 1,8-naphthalimides Containing Benzothiazole Moiety

Ahmed Sulaiman; Ahlam Marouf Al-Azzawi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 111-123

A series of new 1,8-naphthalimides linked to benzothiazole moiety were synthesized by following two different strategies:
The first one involved direct reaction of equimolar amounts of substituted-2-aminobenzothiazoles with 1,8-naphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid under reflux at high temperature for eight hours. The second strategy based on Gabrial synthesis including preparation of unsubstituted-1,8-naphthalimide via refluxing of naphthalic anhydride with ammonium hydroxide at high temperature for six hours then the resulted 1,8-naphthalimide was treated with alcoholic potassium hydroxide to afford naphthalimide potassium salt and this in turn was introduced in the reaction with 2-(2-chloroacetylamino)benzothiazoles (which were prepared via treatment of 2-aminobenzothazoles with chloroacetyl chloride) producing new series of N-(2-acetamido substituted benzothiazole-2-yl)-1,8-naphthalimides.
Structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed by depending on FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C NMR spectral data which were in agreement with the proposed ones. Finally antibacterial activity of some of the prepared new cyclic imides were evaluated against two types of bacteria and the results showed that the most of the tested imides posses good biological activity against these organisms.

Synthesis , Characterization and antibacterial activity of Several New Schiff Bases Linked to Phthalimide Moiety

Marwa Shawqi Abdul Razzak; Ahlam Marouf Al-Azzawi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 124-133

Some novel Schiff bases linked to phthalimide moiety have been synthesized via multistep synthesis. The first step involved reaction of phthalic anhydride with aniline producing N-phenyl phthalamic acid which was subsequently dehydrated to the corresponding N-phenyl phthalimide via treatment with acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate. The synthesized imide was treated with chlorosulfonic acid in the third step producing 4-(N-phthalimidyl)phenyl sulfonyl chloride which on amination with hydrazine hydrate in the fourth step afforded 4-(N-phthalimidyl)phenyl sulfonyl hydrazine and this in turn when introduced in condensation reaction with various aromatic aldehydes and ketones afforded the desirable new Schiff bases.
Structures of the prepared compounds were elucidated on the basis of FTIR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectral data which agreed with the proposed structures.
The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against two microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia Coli and they were found to exhibit good to moderate antibacterial activity.

Synthesis of new heterocyclic rings including four,five and seven member rings with study their biological activity

Ismaeel Y.Majeed; Mohanned J.Mahmoud; Ibtisam K.Jassim

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 134-156

A new series of heterocyclic compounds including four, five and seven member rings have been synthesized. These compounds including N,N'-(1,4-phenylenebis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene))bis(substituted) [1,2], ,4(1,4 phenylene)bis(3-chloro-1-(alkyl)azetidine -2-one(3,4) , 1,4-bis(1-(substituted)-2,5-dihydro-1H-tetrazole-5-yl)benzene (5,6), 2,2-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-(alkyl)-2H benzo[1,3]thiazine-4(3H-one)(7,8). 2,2-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-(alkyl)-2,3-dihydroquinazoline-4(1H)one)(9,10). thiazepine derivatives(11,12). (5z,5z)-2,2-(1,4-phenylene)-2,3dihydro-1,3-oxazepine-4,7-dione (13,14) and 3,3-(1,4-phenylene)bis(4-(alkyl)-3,4-dihydrobenzo[1,3]oxazepine-1,5-dione(15,16,17,18) . The structures of these compounds characterized by (FT-IR, H-NMR) spectroscopy and C.H.N analysis ,melting points and checked through T.L.C. The biological activity of these compounds was tested against
Staph. Aureus, E. coli , Sal. typhi and Ps. Aerugenosa bacteria.

Adiponectin and Lipid Profile Levels in Type-2 Diabetic Obese Patients in Kerbala Province

Fadhil J. Al-Tu; Azher A. Ibraheem; Tariq H. Al-Kayatt

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 157-166

Background: The association between obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus may be partly mediated by altered secretion of adipokines by adipose tissue. Adiponectin is an adipokines with anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing properties; it is secretion is down regulated in obesity. The correlation of plasma adiponectin with the risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia is unclear.
Objective: To study the association between plasma adiponectin level with lipid profile in type-2 diabetic obese patients in Kerbala province: Iraq.
Material and method: A total number of 110 sample subjects with different age, and different gender were classified according to diabetes mellitus and obesity. Fasting serum adiponectin was measured by ELISA method. Measurements of fasting lipid profile also have been performed.
Results and discussion: It was obtained that adiponectin level was lowered significantly in diabetic group, obese group, and diabetic obese group as compared with control group. Serum adiponectin was correlate negatively with serum total cholesterol, serum TG, and with body fat percent (BF %), while it was correlated positively with HDL-C. Serum total cholesterol levels was correlated positively with each of serum TG, LDL-C levels and with BF%, while serum TG levels was negatively correlated with serum HDL-C and positively correlated with each of BMI and BF %. Serum LDL-C was positively correlated with BF %, while BF % correlates positively with age.

Conclusion: According to the presented data, adiponectin as hormone play an important role in the prevention of hyperlipidemia, and consequently atherosclerosis and its complications.

Synthesis , characterization of some new heterocyclic compounds and evaluating their biological activity

Fawzi H. Jumaa; Shaymaa A. Suood; Ibtisam K.Jassim

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 167-178

Abstract
This work involves synthesis of some heterocyclic compounds including 2- amino-5-[(3,5-dimethyl phenoxymethylene)-1,3,4-thiadiazole [3]. 2-( substituted benzylidene)-1,3,4-Thiadiazole -5- (3,5-dimethyl phenoxy methylene [4,5]. 2- [ p-nitro or p-dimethyl amino phenyl]-3- (1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl-5-{3,5-dimethyl phenoxymethylene}) imidazolidine-4-one [6,7]. 2-[ p-nitro or p-dimethyl amino phenyl]-3- (1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl-5-{3,5-dimethyl phenoxymethylene}) thiazolidin-4-one [8,9].
The prepared compounds were characterized by spectral methods FT-IR ,1H-NMR and some physical properties with evaluation of their biological activity.

Extraction, Identification and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Phenolic Acids As Antioxidants in Teucrium polium Plant

Sajda Abbas; Salam A. H. Al-Ameri; Muna Mahmoud

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 179-188

A direct solvent extraction was used for the extraction of aerial parts of local medicinal plant Teucrium polium using methanol ,ethanol, iso-propanol, butanol, chloroform, acetone , ethyl acetate, and hexane. The total phenolic contents of extracts was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method , the results shows that the highest extraction was obtained by methanol which was found to be equal to 100.144 mg/ g of dry plant. HPLC was employed to identification phenolic acid content especially Gallic acid in Teucrium polium extract with each solvent, The results showed that the highest extraction was obtained equals to 48.07% by methanol followed by acetone and ethanol, also the results shows that the n- hexane give the lowest extraction 4.27%, also butanol with iso-propanol extract contain the large number of phenolic acid contents. The accuracy and precision of this method were determined by preparing laboratory samples of Gallic acid , the results show absolute error ranging from ±0.3 to ± 1.5 , relative errors ranging from ±0.375 to 1.87 % , the standard deviation equal to 0.48 and the relative standard deviation did not exceed ±0.478 %,the standard deviation of the mean was 0.215. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of local medicinal plant Teucrium polium life samples from Dehok and Al-Kut were examined for their antimicrobial potentials against selected test bacteria and fungi, Aspergillus Niger , Aspergillus parasticus , Staphylococcus aurous positive, Staphylococcus aurous negative, Streptococcus , Escherichia coli and Cladosporium. The present results showed that all the extracts posses good antimicrobial activity against selected test bacteria and fungus. The present results therefore offer a scientific basis for traditional use of Teucrium polium for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections.

Study of Selenium by Electrothemal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Tantalum Platform

Mohammed J. M. Hassan

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 189-195

A new approach for the direct determination of selenium by Electrothemal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS) is proposed, the method employs a 1.0cm x 0.3cm Tantalum metal platform placed in graphite tube. The experimental conditions for the determination of Se via this method have been optimized. Pyrolysis and atomization curves are constructed using uncoated graphite tube without and with platform. The calibration curves were linear over the rang 10-50 ng.ml-1 of Se concentration, with relative standard deviation values, at 50 ng.ml-1 level of 1.96%. The accuracy and precision of the method was evaluated by determining recoveries and percentage relative standard deviation using different concentrations of standard solutions of Se. this method was applied successfully for the determination of Se in human blood serum.

Synthesis ,characterization and investigation of biological activity of new heterocyclic compounds

Ibtisam K.Jassim

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 196-217

A new compounds of 2-amino-5-(m-nitro phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole [1] and 2-amino -5- phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole[2], N[(o-hydroxy benzylidene-5-( phenyl-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-amine][3] or N[(m-nitro benzylidene-5-(m-nitro phenyl-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-amine][4], 2-(m-nitro phenyl) -3 (5-m-nitrophenyl)1,3,4-oxadiazole]-2-yl-thiazolidin-4-one [5], 2-(m-nitro phenyl) –tetrazolo-1-yl)- 5-(m-nitrophenyl )1,3,4-oxadiazole ] [6] , 5-(m-nitro phenyl)-2/-(m-nitrophenyl)-2-yl-2,3-dihydro-1,3-oxazpine-4,7-dione [7] , 4-hydrazino nicotinic acid [8], 1-phenyl-4-(nicotinoyl) thiosemicarbazide [9], and 3-hydrazino-5- (pyridyl )-1,2,4- Triazole-4-phenyl [11], 3-(p-N,N/ dimethyl amino benzylidene)- hydrazino -5- (pyridyl )-1,2,4- Triazole-4-phenyl [12], 4-(3-methyl pyrazol-5-one)- hydrazino -5- (pyridyl )-1,2,4- Triazole-4-phenyl [13], 4-(3,5-dimethyl pyrazol)- hydrazine-5- (pyridyl )-1,2,4- Triazole-4-phenyl [14], ethyl 4-bromo-phenoxy acetate [15], p-bromo pheno -aceto thiosemicabazone [16] ,2- amino-5-[(p-bromp phenoxymethylene)-1,3,4-thiadiazole [17], 2N( p-nitro benzylidene)-1,3,4-Thiadiazole -5- (p-bromo phenoxy methyl [1 8 ], 5 -(p-bromo phenoxy methyl) 2/-(p-nitro phenyl- 2-yl)-5,6-dimethyl-1,3-oxazpine-4,7-dione [19] or5-(p-bromo phenoxy methyl) 3-(p-nitro phenyl- 2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1,3-oxazpine-4,7-dione [20] and imidazoline[21].
The chemical structures of these compounds were identified by FT-IR,H-NMR , Uv spectroscopy and the reaction time ,purity was checked by TLC with determining the melting points. Some of the new compounds were tested against four strains of bacteria ( Klebsiella Pneumoniae ,Pseudomonas aeuroginosa ,Staphylococcus Aureus and Bacillus subtilus ) comparing these activities with that of starting material

Combination Therapy with Hydroquinone, Tretinoin and Steroid for Treatment of Melasma in Iraqi patients

Ali Tariq Abd Al Hassan; Narjes Chyad Abdul-Zahra

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 218-227

Background: Melasma is one of the most frequently acquired hyperpigmentation disorders clinically characterized by symmetrical brown patches on sun exposed areas. The pathogenesis of melasma is not fully understood, but several hypotheses have been suggested. Patient treatment is particularly difficult and challenging, and necessitates using different modalities of treatment which is a burden on the patient.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combination of retinoic acid, steroids and hydroquinone in reducing melasma.
Patients and Methods: The study was conducted at the private clinic, Kerbala city in the period July 2008- March 2009. One hundred & thirteen patients with melasma were included in this study, all of them were female (pregnant and nursing mothers were excluded), with an age range 25-40 years. Full clinical examination was done for all patients ,the severity of melasma was assessed by the melasma area severity index(MASI).The treatment include using of combination of retinoic acid 0.25,steroid (hydrocortisone cream ,Betamethasone cream and clobetasol propionate cream ) and hydroquinone in addition to use of sunblock SPF60 regularly for all patients .
The patients divided in to three groups according to primary cause of melasma and the treatment modules were as follow:
Group 1: (sun exposure ) the formula used was retinoic acid 0.25 ,hydroquinone 2% and hydrocortisone cream ,for group (2)(cosmetic ) the formula used was retinoic acid cream 0.25 ,hydroquinone cream 4%and betamethasone cream and for group (3) (pregnancy cause )we used retinoic acid cream 0.25 ,hydroquinone cream 4% and clobetasol propionate cream .The follow up and response to treatment recorded every week depending on the MASI until the desired response was achieved at the end of 4th week .follow-up was carried out for 6 months later to record any relapse.
Result: The results revealed marked improvement and significant decrease in MASI in all groups .The MASI for group (1) decrease from 10.6 to reach 3.18,MASI for group (2) was decreased from 15.5 to 3.88 while MASI for group (3) decreased from 22 to reach 4.4 .
No side or unwanted effect recorded or informed by the patients .
Conclusion: Combination of retinoic acid, steroids and hydroquinone was found to be effective in reducing and treating melasma if used in proper way.

Synthesis and characterization of some substituted heterocyclic compounds and evaluation of biological activity

Wissam K.Jassim; Amina A. Fayad; Ibtisam K.Jassim

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 228-240

This work includes preparing of some new derivatives of 1,2,4-Triazoles and oxazoles from the reaction between 3,5-dimethyl phenol and chloroethyl acetate in the presence of potassium carbonate and dry acetone to obtain the ester ethyl 3,5-dimethyl phenoxy acetate , then converted this ester to Thiosemicarbazone and Semicarbazone. Then ,the Triazoles were prepared from the cyclization of these Thiosemcarbazones and Semicarbazones in alkaline media( potassium hydroxide solution) . The prepared compounds were characterized by spectral methods FT-IR ,1H-NMR and measurement of some of its physical properties and evaluation of the biological activity for some of them.

Preparation and characterization of some new heterocyclic compounds with evaluating of its biological activity

Wissam K. Jassim

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 241-256

A series of compounds of p-Nitro ethyl benzoate [2],p-Nitro benzoic hydrazide [3], 1-phenyl-4-(p-nitrophenyl) thiosemicarbazide [4], 3-mercapto-4-phenyl-5- (p-nitro phenyl)-1,2,4- Triazole[5], 3-hydrazino -4-phenyl-5- (p-nitro phenyl)-1,2,4- Triazole [6], 3-( substituted benzylidene hydrazine)-4-phenyl-5- (p-nitro phenyl-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole [7] and [8], 2-(substituted aryl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1,3-oxazpine-4,7-dione.[9] and [10], 2-(substituted aryl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-2-yl-2,3-benzo-1,3-oxazpine-4,7-dione [11] and [12], 2-(substituted aryl) –tetrazolo-1-yl)-[(3-hydrazino-4-phenyl)- 5-p-nitrophenyl)1,2,4-triazole ] [9], 2-substituted aryl-3~-[3-hydrazino—4-phenyl-5-(p-nitrophenyl)1,2,4-triazole]-2-yl-thiazolidin-4-one [15] and [16]. 2-(substituted aryl) –3-[3-hydrazino—4-phenyl-5-(p-nitrophenyl)1,2,4-triazole]-2-yl-imidazolidin-4-one [17]and [18] were prepared and the chemical structures of these compounds were characterized by FT-IR , 1H-NMR for some of them Uv/vis spectra , C.H.N analysis ), melting points and the purity was checked. Biological activity of these compounds was evaluated.

EFFECT OF PARACETAMOL ON SALIVA α-AMYLASE

Othman R. Hameed Alsamarrai

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 257-263

The effect of paracetamol on the activity of saliva α-amylase was carried out. We prepared three different concentrations solutions of paracetamol (300, 500, 750) mg/100ml. The effect of different volumes (5, 10, 20, 30, 50) µl of paracetamol for each concentration were study. The results showed that paracetamol has inhibition effect on the activity of α-amylase enzyme and highest inhibition at 10µl of inhibitor, while the degree of inhibition for three different concentrations were (52.30, 54.34, 20.70) % respectively. Also, kinetic of enzyme showed km value 1.428 mmol/L, and Vmax value 30303.03 mol.liter-1.min-1, the result showed that inhibition is uncompetitive type.

Study of optimum conditions for uricase enzyme production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Etab Abdul Ameer Al-Mosawi; Sahib Ali Mahdi Al-Atraqchi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 264-278

The ability of 15 bacterial isolates were tested to production uricase enzyme , by using the solid and submerged culture in the primary and secondary screening .
The isolate P.aeruginosa 7 was selected for it's best in production of enzyme . the optimum fermentation condition for uricase enzyme production by P. aeruginosa 7 were examined . Results showed that used 0.05% syrup dates as carbon source, and used o.3% from uric as inducer , 0.75% from KH2PO4 , 0.1% from Mgcl2 .
The other optimum condition for production of uricase enzyme were selected , the optimum pH was 6.5 and incubation period was after 24 hrs. , and the optimum temperature 37 CO .
However the shaking was at 150 rpm , and inoculum volume was 1 from culture volume .

Estimation of alkaline phosphatase from salivaof diabetic patients and partial purification of it's isoenzymes

Nazar Ahmed Najy; a Ismaeel Yaseen; Asra; Ferah Ghali Al-Salihi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 279-289

This study was performed on 181 saliva specimens of diabetic patients ( 59 of type 1 & 122 of type 2 ), in addition 149 healthy saliva specimens were investigated as control group. The result of this study showed a significant increase (p=0.000) in activity of salivary alkaline phosphatase from diabetic patients (both types ) compared to healthy subjects.
Three isoenzymes were isolated from saiva of diabetic patients by addition of ammonium sulphate ,dialysis and ion-exchange (DEAE-Cellulose A-50) ,Isoenzyme I was partially purified by gel –filteration using Sephadex G-100 and showed a single band through electrophoresis by using SDS-PAGE and Coomassie blue R250 dye.