ISSN: 7027-2221

Volume 1, Issue 1

Volume 1, Issue 1, Winter 2010, Page 1-92

The Effect of Polysorbate 80 on Antibiotics’ Sensitivity

Ismaeel A. Al- Obaydi; Mohammed A.K. Al- Sa; adi; Sabah N. Al- Thamir

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-11

This study aims to assess the direct antibacterial effect of the surfactant polysorbate 80 on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate when it was tested alone, as well as to assess the combining effects of this surfactant with the commonly used antibiotics.
Agar well diffusion method was carried out to assess the antibacterial activity of different concentrations of polysorbate 80 alone on the bacterial isolate. Antibiotic sensitivity test was performed by testing number of antibiotics applied against pseudomonal isolate, firstly; by applying the surfactant alone at different concentrations, secondly, without polysorbate 80 and thirdly; with the presence of various concentrations of the surfactant (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) % (v/v media) applied to the media.
The results of the study revealed that polysorbate 80 alone had no antibacterial activity at the tested concentrations but it showed a highly potentiative effects when it was combined with some antibiotics. These effects appeared either in changing the bacterial sensitivity profile to antibiotics which was reflected by changing the resistance state to sensitivity state of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate toward cloxacillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime and gentamicin at (5) % (v/v) and (6) % (v/v). Or by significantly enhancing the pre- existing anti- pseudomonal activity which was reflected by increasing the diameter of inhibition zones produced by meropeneme (p<0.01) and amikacin (p<0.05) when tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
As a conclusion, polysorbate 80 had no antibacterial activity but it had produced a potentiative effect with some antibiotics while it had no effects with the others.

Glutathione and other Antioxidant Status in Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia with Severe G6PD Deficiency in Babylon Province : Iraq

William M. Frankool; Fadhil J. Al-Tu

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 12-25

The objectives of this study were an attempt to evaluate and to compare between some of the antioxidant and biochemical parameters investigated in severe G6PD-deficient neonates with hyperbilirubinemia with TSB≥ 15 mg/dl.
The study included a total of 236 full-term male neonates, 53 neonates were control and 183 of them with hyperbilirubinemia who were admitted in Babylon Hospital of Pediatric and Maternity / Babylon during 1st , Oct., 2007 and 12th, July, 2008 with age ranged between 1 – 28 days .
All the neonates were screened for erythrocyte G6PD enzyme activity measurement to confirm the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency. Of these subjects, 53 neonates (22.46%) of them showed a normal enzyme activity levels ; whereas the remaining 183 (77.54%) neonates were found to have neonatal hyperbilirubinemia with TSB levels ≥ 15 mg/dl. Among them, only 22 neonates were diagnosed to have severe G6PD deficiency and its percentages of incidence identified was 12.02%.
The results indicated that there was a significant negative correlation (r = − 0.203 , P < 0.05) between the decreased G6PD activity levels and the elevated TSB concentrations in severe G6PD-deficient hyperbilirubinemic neonates. These data suggest that the G6PD-deficient neonates are at increased risk for hyperbilirubinemia even in the nursery free from agents that can potentially cause hemolysis to G6PD-deficient red cells.
The mean ± SD of antioxidant status and oxidative stress parameters which include erythrocyte GSH, MDA, G-Red, G-Px and catalase were determined. There was a significant decrease in each of erythrocyte GSH, G-Red and catalase activity levels (P<0.05), whereas the lipid peroxidation end product MDA levels and G-Px activity levels were significantly increased in all hyperbilirubinemic neonates (P < 0.05) as compared with the control group.
G6PD activity values identified were found to be positively correlated with each of GSH concentrations, G-Red and catalase activity levels in which their values were found to decreased in patient groups, while it was found to be negatively correlated with each of G-Px activity and MDA levels in which their values were elevated in severe G6PD-deficient neonates. These data indicates an increases in free radical generation and thus antioxidant defense mechanisms is impaired in peroxidation associated with a significant elevation in MDA levels in the erythrocytes of the hyperbilirubinemic neonates with severe G6PD deficiency than that found in the control group which demonstrate the presence of an increased oxidative stress due to reduction in NADPH which is generated in RBCs by HMP-shunt only.

Synthesis And Antibacterial Activity Of Some New α-Phenylcinnamoyl Thiosemicarbazides And 5-Substituted- α-Phenylstyryl-1,3,4-Triazole-2-Thiols

Ahmed S. Hamed; Georg Y. Sarkis

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 26-32

A series of new derivatives of α-phenylcinnamoyl thiosemicarbazides have been synthesized and converted to 5-substituted- α-phenylstyryl-1,3,4-triazole-2-thiols.These compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ,Escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was found that α- phenylcinnamoyl thiosemicarbazides were more active than triazoles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Oxidative stress in the sera and seminal plasma of the infertile subjects in Babylon governorate

Kadhum J. Al-Hamdani; Tariq H. Al-Khyatt

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 33-42

This study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of serum and seminal oxidative stress (OS) on male infertility with different infertility potentials. To achieve this aim, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity were determined by the spectrophotometric methods in the sera and the seminal plasma of 75 infertile males divided to: 25 azoospermics with age range (25-45 yr), 25 asthenozoospermics with age range (24-45 yr) and 25 oligozoospermics with age range (23-41 yr). Twenty five healthy fertile male with age range (22-45 yr) used as controls. The results indicated a significant increase in the seminal and serum levels of MDA in azoospermic group (p< 0.05, p<0.001 respectively), asthenozoospermic group (p<0.001 both) and oligozoospermic group (p<0.001 both). While the levels of seminal and serum GSH are significantly decreased in azoospermic group (p<0.01, p<0.001 respectively), asthenozoospermic group (p<0.01, p<0.001 respectively) and oligozoospermic group (p<0.001, p<0.05 respectively). Also the levels of seminal and serum catalase activity significantly decreased in azoospermic group (p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively), asthenozoospermic group (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively) and oligozoospermic group (p<0.01 both). The obtained results showed a positive correlation between serum MDA with the seminal MDA but negative correlation with the seminal GSH and catalase activity, while the positive correlation between serum and seminal antioxidants has not been demonstrated in all study groups. The study reveals a negative correlation between OS and good seminal fluid analysis parameters. As a conclusion to this study, serum and seminal OS is involved in the pathogenesis of male infertility confirming that the use of antioxidant therapy can improve OS-induced male infertility.

Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated from patients with UTIs in Karbala

Hassan Ali Al-Saadi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 43-48

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if UTI is a widespread problem among patients in Karbala district and to assess its relation with some possible risk factors such as age. The sensitivity of the isolated organisms to various antibiotics was also studied.
Subjects: Three hundred patients with urinary tract infections(UTI) 202 ( 67.33% ) females and 98 ( 32.66%)males were studied at Al-Hussien Hospital from 1 March to 20 October 2008 .Their ages ranged from 1-60 years .
Results: Among 300 cases123 cases revealed bacterial isolates .Those were E.coli 48(39.02% ) , Proteus mirabilis 20,( 16.26% )Ps.euroginosa 10,( 8.13% ) Enterobacter 8(6.50% ),Klebsiella 1(0.81% ) , Staphylococcus aureus 31,( 25.20% )Streptococcus 5(4.06% ). The rate infection of female was higher than that of males (30.66 and 23.33% respectively).The highest rate of infection was in age 41-60 years (54%).The sensitivity of 123 isolates against 14 antibiotics exhibited that.
Conclusions: Screening urine samples is a necessary step in the laboratory diagnosis of UTI. The sensitivity and resistance pattern is helpful in selecting drugs for better empirical response in the treatment of UTI.

Synthesis of substitutead 1,3-Oxazepine and 1,3-Diazepine Via Schiff Bases for Selfamethoxazole drug

Iman A. Yass

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 49-58

Some of aldehydeamino-N-5-methyl-3-oxazolylbenzensulfonamide (Schiff bases) were prepared by condensation of Selfamethoxazole Drug with many substituted aldehydes. These Schiff bases were found to react with maleic anhydride,to give 1,3-Oxazepine-1,3-dione derivatives were react with primary aromatic amines to give the corresponding 1,3-Diazepine-4,7-dione.

Ecological factors affecting on eggs development and life span of meracidia of Fasciola gigantica

Moayad M. Al-jibouri; Hadi R.Hassan; Sabeeh H. Al-Mayah

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 74-80

This study was carried out during the period from February to August 2008 at the laboratories of Biology dep. ,College of Education , University of Karbala. The study involved the effect of temperature, sodium chloride, and pH on the period and the percentage of eggs development. The study involved also the effect of previous factors on the life span of meracidia . The percentage of developed eggs and the period of eggs development decreased significantly when the temperature increased. The optimal pH value for eggs developing was pH 7 while the developing declines significantly when pH less and more than pH 7. The study showed also that eggs developing declines significantly when sodium chloride increased.
Concerning of the life span of meracidia, the study revealed a significant decrease in the life span with temperature and sodium chloride increasing . The study showed also that the best pH value for the lifespan of meracidia was 7 , while it declines significantly when pH less and more than 7.

Quantitative study of the volatile oil extracted from Rosamarinus officinalis L . growing in Karbala reigon as comparison with equivalent leaves imported from Jordan

Ibrahim S. Abbas; Eman F . Hasan; Salam Ahmeed; Mezher Abdulla

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 81-84

A field study was conducted at the research station of medicinal plants of pharmacognocy branch/pharmacy collage of Kerbala'a University to quantity evaluation of volatile oil from plants were planting at deferent spaces between plants and comparison with rosmary leaves were imported from Jordan. The experiment consisted of four treatments included rosmary plants were planted at 20, 40, 60 and 80 cm between plants and the trial was carried out by using randomized complete blook design (R.C.B.D.) with three replicates. The results were referred to volatile oil content was increased with increasing of spaces between plants. The results were referred that treatment at (80 cm) as space planting between plants was gave a highest quantity of volatile oil compare with other treatments .The percentage of volatile oil of all treatments was reached to 1.90% , 2.20% , 2.30% , 2.80% respectively .The percentage of volatile oil of leaves was imported from Jordan its reached to 2.1% of volatile oil.
* University of Karbala / College of pharmacy / Department of Pharmacognosy
and Medical plant .
** Ministry of agriculture .

Quantitative and qualitative assessment of some trace elements in the substance lycopene extract and Alhsberden-use pharmaceuticals.

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 85-92

Electothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was investigated for determination of ultratrace elements present in hesperidin extract and lycopene extract. It was found that, the concentration of Cd, Ni, Co, Cr, are less than 2,3, 78,54, 64, 20 ng/gm alternately in hisperidin extract ,while in lycopene extract are less than 2,3,38,22,68,16 ng/gm. thus the two extract can be used as an active ingredient in pharmaceutical application .