ISSN: 7027-2221

Keywords : paracetamol


The protective and therapeutic effect of alcoholic extract of rosemary officinalis against degeneration effect of over dose of paracetamol on the heart muscle of rats.

Muntdhur Mohammad Cani

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 9, Issue 14, Pages 12-22

The experiment were performed in present study to estimate the protective and the therapeutic role of
ethanolic extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalies) leaves against acute destructive changes in rats
due to high dose of paracetamol, 1ml/ 1000mg/ kg that led to a particular aspect of heart necrosis,
congestion, vacuolation of heart muscle cells, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Leaves and stem of
(Rosemary officinalies) were collected, identified, dried, powdered and extracted by using 90% ethanol in
soxhlet apparatus. Twenty healthy albino mature male rat’s Rattus norvegicus were used in this study
were divided to four groups, including group1 (control group) group 2 were given over-dose of
paracetamol for 3 weeks, group 3 were given combination consist from high dose of paracetamol and
alcoholic extract of (Rosemary officinalies) for 6 weeks, and group 4 were given rosemary extract for 3
weeks after it was given over-dose of paracetamol for 3 weeks. The histopathological result showed that
the alcoholic extract of rosemary officinalis have the protection effect when used in combination with
high dose of paracetamol that clear in microscopic appearance of the heart muscle in group 3, while the
histopathological result of group 4 revealed the therapeutic effect to the alcoholic extract of rosemary
officinalis and the microscopic appearance showed the intact heart muscle. The present study revealed the
productive and treated role to alcoholic extract of rosemary officinalis on heart muscle after long term of
overdose of paracetamol that showed degeneration and vacuolation in muscle fiber addition that
infiltration of inflammatory cell, the extract of this plant resolve the pad tissue changes on the heart tissue
especially in group 4 that appear intact heart muscle and in group 3 showed reduce the sign of the
overdose.

Use of intravenous paracetamol infusion versus placebo in acute brain injury

Samer Ahmed Jawad; Zahraa Abdul Kareem Mohammed; Maysaasalih Mahdi; Moayad mijbil Ubaid

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 258-266

Background:Traumatic brain injuries (TBI)are main causes of mortality and disability worldwide, particularly in children and young adults. They lead to changes in temperature,cerebral blood flow,the pressure inside the skull and consciousness.Patients with TBI experience febrile episodes which lead to previous consequences so it should be resolved prophylactically by use an appropriate antipyretic, but remains important deficiency of coherent evidence about active therapies in the acute care of patients with TBI.
Objectives:Early administration of intravenous paracetamol to patients to reduces core body temperature following intense traumatic brain injury contrast to placebo (normal saline).
Patients & Methods: Involved in this study 20 patients of both sex, aged from 18 to 65years, who were accepted to the intensive care unit for sharp brain injury. A prospective study was carried out in intensive care unit in AL Hussein medical city in Karbala during the period from first of November 2016 to the 28Th of February 2017. Eligible patients wererandomly selected & classified to two groups A & B which (10 patients each group). Group A received (0.9 %) of sodium chloride (normal saline) each(6 /24) hours and group B received 1gram of intravenous Paracetamol every (6 /24) hours. The result included Temperature, pulse rate and systolic & diastolic of blood pressure, which were measured prior to administration of the study drug, hourly during the period of study (24 hours) & till 2 hours after the final dose of the study. The data were analyzed by using T-test.
Results: By using T-test of two groups. Shows this study that there is little or no significant decrease in patient’s temperature in group B who were given paracetamol (P>0.05) except at (first dose) of paracetamol (P< 0.05), while there is no change in group A who were given normal saline (P>0.05).This study also shows significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure in group B at (first & second dose) of paracetamol (P<0.05), while there is no significant change in group A (P>0.05). When we monitored the pulse rate parameter & systolic blood pressure, we noticed that there is no significant change in its value in the two groups (P>0.05).
Conclusion:. Was concluded that there is little or no significant decrease in patient’s temperature in group B who were given paracetamol, while there is no change in group A who were given normal saline.

Hepatoprotective activity of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) against Paracetamol toxicity in female rats

Msc.Amal umran musa; Msc. Shatha Hussein kadhim; Msc. Zahraa abed al- kreem; Msc. Moayad Mijbil ubaid

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 36-43

Hepatotoxicity is an acute adverse effect of paracetamol overdose which could be fatal, so in
this research we studied the effect of paracetamol on liver enzymes (GPT, GOT, total protein,
glucose, bilirubin) of female rats that drenched Artichoke. twenty laboratory female rats housed in
plastic cages in animal house at university Karbala of / college of pharmacy , the animals divided
randomly into four groups ,(G1 control, G2 drenched with 500 mg/kg Artichoke and 500 mg/kg
paracetamol, G3 drenched with 500 mg/kg paracetamol ,G4 drenched with 500 mg/kg Artichoke ) ,
the present study found the ability of Artichoke to protect liver enzyme against the poisonous effect
of paracetamol by reducing the higher value of GPT,GOT, glucose, and evaluated the lower value
of bilirubin and total protein causing by paracetamol. Histopathological changes in liver were
greatly reduced on animals treated with artichoke and paracetamol when compared with the
paracetamol group .However, animals treated with paracetamol showed severe congestion in central
vein and there is inflammatory cell and degeneration in hepatocyte enlargement in sensoides and
necrosis and odema.

In vitro evaluation of formulation factors: the granule size and type of binder upon physiochemical characterisation of paracetamol capsules

Alshawi Malathe Abdul latif; Mohammed Sabar

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 236-245

Paracetamol is antipyretic and analgesic agent. It has been used for long time in different types of dosage forms. Capsule is one of the common dosage forms that characterized by ease of production and faster release in comparison to tablet. The release of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from capsules is dictated by formulation factors of binder and particle size of the granules. Those factors were investigated here to find out the appropriate binder and the optimum granule size. In addition, characterization of the flow properties, friability of the granules, the actual content, the release profile, kinetic of release were investigated
It was found that the optimum granule size in term of flow property is 25-mesh size. There was no significant difference in release profile among all the examined binders (starch, acacia, and PEG4000). However, using of PEG4000 as binder gives granules with reasonable hardness that can with stand subsequent process (i.e., capsule filling). These facts make PEG4000 as binder to be more preferable.