ISSN: 7027-2221

Keywords : mice

Histopathological changes of heavy metals Nickel Chloride (II) and Potassium dichromate (VI) on the Liver and Kidney of Swiss Male Mice

haider J. Kehiosh; Abeer C.Al-fatlawi

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 221-230

Heavy metals are a very harmful environmental pollutant, Nickel and chrome induced toxicity and carcinogenicity, with an emphasis on the generation and role of reactive oxygen species is reviewed. Nickel and chrome are a known as haematotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, genotoxic, reproductive toxic, pulmonary toxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and carcinogenic agent. The present study revealed the toxic effects of nickel (Ni) (II) and chrome (Cr) (VI) on the liver and kidney structure of mature male mice weighing 20-30 g, (10-13 weeks old), were treated orally with different doses (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg of NiCl2 and 20, 60 and 100 mg/kg of K2Cr2O7). Dramatic Histopathological changes found in the liver and kidney of treated animals included degeneration, nuclear pycnosis, cellular swelling,necrosis, congestion of blood vessels and many others defects .

Anticonvulsant activity of Apium graveolens in male mice

Entisar J. Al Mukhtar

karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 58-68

Epilepsy is a heterogeneous symptom complex—a chronic disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Seizures are finite episodes of brain dysfunction resulting from abnormal discharge of cerebral neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticonvulsant effect of Apium graveolens.
Convulsions were induced by lidocaine in four groups of male albino mice. Group one and two received two different oral doses of Apium graveolens (A. graveolens) daily for 10 days, at day eleven convulsions were induced by lidocaine, group three and four were injected with distill water (D.W) and diazepam (DIZ) respectively 30 minutes before lidocaine injection. Onset and duration of convulsions were recorded and compared as a main effect to lidocaine, the onset of ataxia and drowsiness were also recorded.
No significant differences were found (p>0.05) in the onset of convulsion between D.W and other treated groups. A. graveolens at 15 g/kg not significantly delayed the onset of convulsion in comparison to other groups. Regarding the duration of convulsion it was high significantly increased (p<0.01) in D.W. group in comparison to other groups, The duration of convulsion was non significantly (p>0.05) reduced in 15 g/kg A. graveolens compared to DIZ, while it was high significantly decreased (p<0.01) in A. graveolens 15 g/kg compared to 7.5 g/kg.
Ataxia did not occurred in both 7.5 g/kg A. graveolens and D.W groups. The 15 g/kg A. graveolens significantly (p<0.05) delayed the onset of ataxia in comparison to DIZ.
The onset of drowsiness was significantly (p<0.05) delayed in 15 g/kg A. graveolens compared to D.W, while it was non significantly (p>0.05) delayed in 15 g/kg A. graveolens compared to 7.5 g/kg A. graveolens and DIZ groups. In conclusion Apium graveolens has anticonvulsant activity. At the dose 15g/kg the anticonvulsant effect of A. graveolens was higher than that of DIZ, while at the dose 7.5g/kg of A. graveolens it was less than that of DIZ.