Keywords : BMI
karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences,
Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 188-196
Background: Previous findings reported that the majority of BC in Iraqi women is invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and the most frequent subtype is estrogen receptor (ER+) and/or progesterone receptor (PR+) expressed.
Objective: The present study is aimed to determine the association of age, BMI, and the levels of estradiol and progesterone hormones as well as their receptors in pre- and postmenopausal women with IDC that may ultimately help identify high-risk women who would benefit from increased screening or chemoprevention.
Methodology: Forty premenopausal and fifty eight (58) postmenopausal women with IDC, previously identified their ER and PR expression, are involved in this study. Age, BMI, and serum levels of estradiol and progesterone are determined.
Results: Both pre- and postmenopausal patients are presented at advanced age (45.8 ± 0.76, 59.1 ± 0.72 year) respectively. The average of BMI in both groups is within overweight category, but without significant difference between pre- and postmenopausal patients (27.3 ± 045, and 26.7±0.38 kg/m2 respectively). Both estradiol and progesterone serum levels are significantly higher in premenopausal patients (290.1± 6.5 pg/ml, and 2.55± 0.38 ng/ml respectively) than those in postmenopausal patients (264.1± pg/ml, and 0.75± ng/ml respectively). Just postmenopausal patients showed significant reverse association between E2 levels and the positively expression of ER (r= - 0.289), and PR (r= - 0.386), while progesterone levels showed significant association with age of pre- and postmenopausal, and with BMI of postmenopausal.
Conclusion: Collectively, age, estradiol level, and expression of ER and PR are the main factors associated with the diversity of breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women and ultimately they may help in identifying high-risk women who would benefit from increased screening or chemoprevention.
Effect of transfusion interval rate on clinical manifestations of patients with beta- thalassemia major and their correlation with some biochemical parameters
karbala journal of pharmaceutical sciences,
Volume 8, Issue 13, Pages 249-257
Background: Regular blood transfusions is the commonest form of life-long treatment for patients with beta-thalassemia major but multiple transfusions of blood causes iron overload and resulting in multiple progressive organ damage that later involved endocrine system, heart, and liver.
Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical manifestations in the adult patients with beta thalassemia major based on interval rate of the blood transfusion and also investigate correlation between clinical status of patients with some biochemical parameters including the level of ferritin, Hb, prolactin, and cortisol.
Methodology: Forty one Iraqi β -thalassemia major (TM) patients (19male and 22 female) are recruited from thalassemia center in Karbala at age of 14-24 years. The frequency of blood transfusion rate, blood groups, spleen status, and HCV infection are recorded from the profile of all patients. The weight and height of patients were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI), while the concentration of Hb, ferritin, cortisol, and prolactin are tested at morning just before blood transfusion session. Patients are grouped according to their transfusion interval rate (TIR) into two groups; short TIR group (˂ 3 weeks), and long TIR group (≥ 3 weeks).
Results: The results were non-significant in the distribution of gender and blood groups, spleen status, frequency of HCV infection, Hb, cortisol, and prolactin between the two groups, but age average, ferritin level and BMI of long TIR group are significantly lower than those of short TIR patients. On the other hand, long TIR patients revealed non-significant correlation between all parameters and clinical manifestations except for Hb content which is significantly decreased (r = - 0.451, P = 0.039) in splenectomized patients. However, short TIR group showed that Hb content is significantly decreased in both splenectomized (r = - 0.560, P = 0.01) and underweighted (r = - 0.477, P = 0.033) TM patients.
Conclusion: We can concluded that the levels of cortisol and prolactin hormones are neither disturbed in TM patients nor correlated with interval rate of transfusion, but Hb level is the key factor that determine TIR and ferritin level leading to retardation in BMI which may be due to another endocrinopathy particularly those that are closely related with metabolic pathways such as growth hormone and thyroxin.